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Technology Transfer Network - Air Toxics Web Site

Risk and Technology Review

What is the RTR Program?

The Risk and Technology Review (RTR) is a combined effort to evaluate both risk and technology as required by the Clean Air Act (CAA) after the application of maximum achievable control technology (MACT) standards. Section 112(f) of the CAA requires EPA to complete a Report to Congress that includes a discussion of methods the EPA would use to evaluate the risks remaining after the application of MACT standards. These are known as residual risks. EPA published the Residual Risk Report to Congress (PDF) in March 1999. Section 112(f)(2) directs EPA to conduct risk assessments on each source category subject to MACT standards, and to determine if additional standards are needed to reduce residual risks. Section 112(d)(6) of the CAA requires EPA to review and revise the MACT standards, as necessary, taking into account developments in practices, processes and control technologies. The methodology for conducting these reviews is described in: Risk and Technology Review (RTR) Risk Assessment Methodologies: For Review by the EPA’s Science Advisory Board with Case Studies – MACT I Petroleum Refining Sources and Portland Cement Manufacturing (EPA-452/R-09-006). The Science Advisory Board (SAB) RTR Methods Review Panel held a meeting on July 28-29, 2009 to review this document, and a final report of their review is available at the SAB website .

The EPA has updated several aspects of the risk assessment methodologies contained in the 2009 document. The updated methodologies are described in, Screening Methodologies to Support Risk and Technology Reviews (RTR): A Case Study Analysis. The SAB reviewed this document in 2017. SAB will be providing a final SAB Panel Report in the Spring of 2018 that will contain the SAB's recommendations to the EPA. More information on the SAB’s review is available at the SAB website.

Recent Actions

RTR Review Files

RTR review files that contain the risk modeling data will be posted here during the public comment periods for all RTR proposals. To use the emission data files, you must download them to your computer and unzip them to view the data and provide comments.

The below web links under the heading "Additional Resources" contain the detailed instructions for downloading and updating the emission data files.

RTR Project Lead Phone Number
Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing Tonisha Dawson 919-541-1454
Engine Test Cells/Stands James Eddinger 919-541-5426
Stationary Combustion Turbines Melanie King 919-541-2469
Hydrochloric Acid Production Chuck French 919-541-7912


Current Schedules

The EPA is under a consent decree to complete RTRs for one source category and a court-order to complete RTRs for 33 source categories. The schedules for these categories are shown in the following table:

Source Category
(Link to Technical Information)
Consent Decree or Court Ordered Date for Signature of Final Rule
Leather Finishing Operations 12/31/2018
Wet Formed Fiberglass Mat Production 12/31/2018
Wood Building Products 12/31/2018
Friction Materials Manufacturing 12/31/2018
Fabric Printing 12/31/2018
Large Appliances 12/31/2018
Metal Furniture 12/31/2018
Metal Can 3/13/2020
Metal Coil 3/13/2020
Plastic Parts 3/13/2020
Hydrochloric Acid Production 3/13/2020
Misc. Metal Parts 3/13/2020
Ethylene Production 3/13/2020
Auto and Light Duty 3/13/2020
Asphalt Processing & Roofing Manufacturing 3/13/2020
Boat Manufacturing 3/13/2020
Reinforced Plastics and Composites Production 3/13/2020
Organic Liquids Distribution 3/13/2020
Paper and Other Web 3/13/2020
Integrated Iron and Steel 3/13/2020
Stationary Combustion Turbines 3/13/2020
Misc. Organic NESHAP (MON) 3/13/2020
Solvent Extraction for Vegetable Oil 3/13/2020
Engine Test Cells/Stands 3/13/2020
Cellulose Products Manufacturing 3/13/2020
Site Remediation 3/13/2020
Municipal Solid Waste Landfills 3/13/2020
Misc. Coating Manufacturing 6/30/2020
Taconite Iron Ore Processing 6/30/2020
Iron and Steel Foundries 6/30/2020
Plywood and Composite Wood Products 6/30/2020
Lime Manufacturing 6/30/2020
Rubber Tire Manufacturing 6/30/2020
Mercury Emissions from Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants 10/1/2021
Semiconductor Manufacturing 10/1/2021
Generic MACT II - Cyanide Chemicals Manufacturing 10/1/2021
Generic MACT II - Spandex Production 10/1/2021
Generic MACT II - Carbon Black Production 10/1/2021
Primary Copper Smelting 10/1/2021
Flexible Polyurethane Foam Fabrication Operations 10/1/2021
Refractory Products Manufacturing 10/1/2021
Primary Magnesium Refining 10/1/2021


Other RTR Actions

The EPA has completed the RTRs for the following source categories:

Source Category
(Link to Technical Information)
Proposed Rule Publication Date Final Rule Publication Date
Portland Cement 9/21/2017 7/25/2018
Pulp and Paper Combustion Sources 12/30/2017 10/11/2017
Nutritional Yeast Manufacturing 12/28/2016 10/16/2017
Publicly-Owned Treatment Works 12/27/2016 10/16/2017 (signature date)
Aerospace 2/17/2015 12/7/2015
Petroleum Refineries 6/30/2014 12/1/2015
Primary Aluminum 12/6/2011
Supplemental Proposal: 12/8/2014
Secondary Aluminum 2/14/2012
Supplemental Proposal: 12/8/2014


Phosphoric Acid Production 11/7/2014 8/19/2015
Phosphate Fertilizer Manufacturing 11/7/2014 8/19/2015
Wool Fiberglass 11/25/2011, 4/15/2013, and 11/13/2014 7/29/2015
Mineral Wool 11/25/2011, 4/15/2013, and 11/13/2014 7/29/2015
Ferroalloys Production 11/23/2011 and 10/6/2014 6/30/2015
Off-Site Waste Recovery Operations 5/30/2014
Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production 11/4/2013
Acrylic/ Modacrylic Fibers 1/9/2014 10/8/2014
Polycarbonates Production 1/9/2014 10/8/2014
Polymers and Resins III 1/9/2014 10/8/2014
Pesticide Active Ingredient Production 11/30/2011 1/31/2014
Polyether Polyols Production 11/30/2011 1/31/2014
Polymers and Resins IV (7 categories) 11/30/2011 1/31/2014
Steel Pickling 10/21/2010 and 2/8/2012 9/19/2012
Chromium Electroplating
-Hard Chromium Electroplating
-Decorative Chromium Electroplating
-Chromium Anodizing Tanks
10/21/2010 and 2/8/2012 9/19/2012
Pulp and Paper I and III 12/27/2011 9/11/2012
Oil and Natural Gas Production 8/23/2011 8/16/2012
Natural Gas Transmission and Storage 8/23/2011 8/16/2012
Secondary Lead Smelters 5/19/2011 1/5/2012
Shipbuilding and Ship Repair 12/21/2010 11/21/2011
Wood Furniture 12/21/2010 11/21/2011
Primary Lead Smelting 2/17/2011 11/15/2011
Marine Vessel Loading 10/21/2010 4/21/2011
Pharmaceuticals 10/21/2010 4/21/2011
Printing and Publishing 10/21/2010 4/21/2011
Polymers and Resins I
-Epichlorohydrin Elastomers
-Nitrile Butadiene Rubber
-Polybutadiene Rubber
-Styrene Butadiene Rubber and Latex
10/21/2010 4/21/2011
Polymers and Resins I
-Polysulfide Rubber
-Ethylene Propylene Rubber
-Butyl Rubber
12/12/2007 12/16/2008
Polymers and Resins II
-Epoxy Resins
-Non-Nylon Polyamides
12/12/2007 12/16/2008
Generic MACT (GMACT) I
-Acetal Resins Production
-Hydrogen Fluoride Production
12/12/2007 12/16/2008
Halogenated Solvent Cleaning 12/14/2006 5/3/2007
Hazardous Organics NESHAP (HON) 6/14/2006 12/21/2006
Dry Cleaners
-Major Sources
-Area Sources
12/21/2005 7/27/2006
Industrial Process Cooling Towers 10/24/2005 4/7/2006
Ethylene Oxide Emission Standards for Sterilization Facilities 10/24/2005 4/7/2006
Magnetic Tape 10/24/2005 4/7/2006
Gasoline Distribution 8/10/2005 4/6/2006
Coke Ovens 8/9/2004 4/15/2005


RTR Source Categories and Project Lead Contact Information

RTR Project Lead Phone Number
Aerospace Kim Teal 919-541-5580
Acrylic/Modacrylic Fibers Production Art Diem 919-541-1185
Chrome Electroplating Phil Mulrine 919-541-5289
Coke Ovens Donna Lee Jones 919-541-5251
Dry Cleaning Tina Ndoh 919-541-2750
Ethylene Oxide Sterilizers Hillary Ward 919-541-3154
Ferroalloys Production Phil Mulrine 919-541-5289
Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Kaye Whitfield 919-541-2509
Gasoline Distribution Andrew Bouchard 919-541-4036
GMACT- Acetal Resins Art Diem 919-541-1185
GMACT- Hydrogen Fluoride Chuck French 919-541-7912
Halogenated Solvents Amy Hambrick 919-541-0964
Hazardous Organic NESHAP (HON) Art Diem 919-541-1185
Industrial Cooling Towers Brenda Shine 919-541-3608
Magnetic Tape Art Diem 919-541-1185
Marine Vessel Loading Andrew Bouchard 919-541-4036
Mineral Wood Production Susan Fairchild 919-541-5167
Oil and Natural Gas Air Pollution Standards Bruce Moore 919-541-5460
Off-site Waste Recovery Operations Paula Hirtz 919-541-2618
Pesticide Active Ingredient Production Art Diem 919-541-1185
Petroleum Refineries Brenda Shine 919-541-3608
Pharmaceuticals Art Diem 919-541-1185
Phosphoric Acid and Phosphate Fertilizers Tina Ndoh 919-541-2750
Polycarbonates Production Art Diem 919-541-1185
Polyether Polyols Production Art Diem 919-541-1185
Polymers/Resins I-Butyl Rubber Art Diem 919-541-1185
Polymers/Resins I-Epichlorohydrine Elastomers Art Diem 919-541-1185
Polymers/Resins I-Ethylene-Propylene Rubber Art Diem 919-541-1185
Polymers/Resins I-Hypalon Production Art Diem 919-541-1185
Polymer/Resins I-Neoprene Art Diem 919-541-1185
Polymers/Resins I-Nitrile Butadiene Production Art Diem 919-541-1185
Polymers/Resins I-Polybutadiene Rubber Art Diem 919-541-1185
Polymers/Resins I-Polysulfide Rubber Art Diem 919-541-1185
Polymers/Resins I-Styrene-Butadiene Rubber/Latex Art Diem 919-541-1185
Polymers/Resins II-Epoxy Resins Art Diem 919-541-1185
Polymers/Resins II-Non-nylon Polyamides Art Diem 919-541-1185
Polymers and Resins III Art Diem 919-541-1185
Polymers/Resins IV Production Art Diem 919-541-1185
Primary Aluminum Production David Putney 919-541-2016
Primary Lead Smelting Nathan Topham 919-541-0483
Printing and Publishing Kim Teal 919-541-5580
Pulp and Paper Production Kelley Spence 919-541-3158
Secondary Aluminum Production Rochelle Boyd 919-541-1390
Secondary Lead Smelting Nathan Topham 919-541-0483
Steel Pickling Phil Mulrine 919-541-5289
Wool Fiberglass Manufacturing Susan Fairchild 919-541-5167


Key Excerpts from the Clean Air Act Regarding Residual Risk and Technology Review

Clean Air Act

Section 112(f(2)

       (A) If Congress does not act on any recommendation submit-
     ted under  paragraph (1), the Administrator  shall, within 8
     years after  promulgation of standards for  each category or
     subcate-gory of  sources pursuant to subsection (d), promul-
     gate   stand-ards  for  such   category  or  subcategory  if
     promulgation  of  such standards  is  required  in order  to
     provide  an ample margin of safety  to protect public health
     in  accordance with this  sec-tion (as in  effect before the
     date of enactment of  the Clean Air Act Amendments  of 1990)
     or  to  prevent, taking  into consid-eration  costs, energy,
     safety, and other relevant factors, an adverse environmental
     effect. Emission standards promulgated under this subsection
     shall provide  an ample margin  of safety to  protect public
     health in accordance
     with this section (as in effect before the date of enactment
     of  the  Clean  Air  Act  Amendments  of  1990), unless  the
     Administrator determines that  a more stringent standard  is
     necessary  to  prevent,  taking  into  consideration  costs,
     energy,  safety,  and  other  relevant  factors, an  adverse
     environmental  effect. If standards  promulgated pursuant to
     subsection (d)  and applicable to a  category or subcategory
     of sources  emitting a pollutant (or  pollutants) classified
     as a  known, probable  or possible  human carcinogen  do not
     reduce lifetime  excess cancer risks to  the individual most
     exposed to  emissions  from  a  source in  the  category  or
     subcategory   to  less   than  one   in  one   million,  the
     Administrator   shall   promulgate   standards  under   this
     subsection for such source category. 
       (B) Nothing in subparagraph (A) or in  any other provision
     of this section shall be construed as affecting, or applying
     to the Administrator's interpretation of this section, as in
     effect before the  date of  enactment of the  Clean Air  Act
     Amendments  of 1990 and set forth in the Federal Register of
     September 14, 1989 (54 Federal Register 38044). 
       (C) The  Administrator shall  determine whether or  not to
     promulgate such standards and,  if the Administrator decides
     to promulgate such standards, shall promulgate the standards
     8 years after promulgation of the standards under subsection
     (d) for  each source  category or subcategory  concerned. In
     the case of categories  or subcategories for which standards
     under subsection (d) are required to be promulgated within 2
     years  after  the date  of enactment  of  the Clean  Air Act
     Amendments  of 1990,  the Administrator  shall have  9 years
     after promulgation of the  standards under subsection (d) to
     make the determination under  the preceding sentence and, if
     required, to promulgate the standards under this paragraph....
	 (6) Review  and revision.- The Administrator  shall review, and
revise as necessary (taking into account developments in practic-
es,  processes,  and  control technologies),  emission  standards
promulgated under this section no less often than every 8 years.    

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