Jump to main content or area navigation.

Contact Us

Assessing Outdoor Air Near Schools

East Elementary School - East Liverpool, OH

Results and Analysis of EPA’s monitoring

EPA selected this school for monitoring because it was located near two facilities owned by the same company that handle and store bulk and packaged products, including metals, minerals, and various industrial products which are sources of air toxics emissions. Air monitoring was initially conducted at East Elementary School from August 12, 2009 through October 4, 2009 to assess concentrations of manganese in the air. EPA extended air toxics monitoring the Water Plant, a site near East Elementary School.  Unfortunately due to budget constraints, the school was demolished in the summer of 2010; therefore, the Water Plant was selected as the site for follow-up monitoring. This site was selected for additional monitoring because measurements of manganese were elevated and indicated a potential concern for long-term, continuous exposure. Additional monitoring for manganese was conducted from June 26, 2011 through January 28, 2012.

Primary Findings

The second round of monitoring indicates that the longer-term concentration estimates for manganese (PM10) are at levels of potential concern for long-term continuous exposure at residential locations near the Water Plant monitoring location or closer to the source.

Key Pollutants Monitored

Manganese.  Inhalation may affect the nervous system if people are exposed to high levels.

Next Steps

Both EPA and OEPA have taken enforcement actions to address particulate matter emissions from a major manganese source in the area.

EPA and Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA) are committed to ensuring continued oversight of the source.

OEPA is aware of these monitored values, which are consistent with historical values in this area, and will continue to oversee industrial facilities in the area through air permits and other programs.

Top of page

Summary of Study Approach and Findings


  • A monitor collected air samples from June 26, 2011 through January 28, 2012 at the Water Plant, a site near the former East Elementary School in East Liverpool, Ohio.
  • Individual air sample results are posted on this website.
  • When the monitoring was complete, we analyzed the results to see if there was a concern from long-term concentrations (over a lifetime).
  • Also, when the monitoring was complete, we evaluated all the air samples from the on-site monitor.


  • Measured values of manganese indicate an influence of the source at the school.
  • Levels of manganese remain above levels of concern for long-term exposure at the school. 
  • Information about the source indicates that the facility had no significant change in production during the monitoring period.
  • Click here for additional information

Top of page

How We Analyzed the Information We Collected at this School

The analysis considered whether the information collected at the school might raise concerns for the health of children or adults at the school. We looked at the following types of information:

  • Measured concentrations and information on manganese
  • Information about nearby sources of manganese

Analysis of Measured Manganese Concentrations:

1. Calculate the average: We calculated the average of the manganese measurements (shown by the black diamond in the graph below). We compared this average to the long-term comparison level (thick line on the graph below).
Result: The average manganese level for the samples collected remained above the long-term comparison level at the East Liverpool Water Plant.

Graph showing analysis of average manganese at East Liverpool Water Plant

2. Calculate a range: To account for varying air concentrations of manganese, we calculated a range around the average. We did this by estimating high and low values that the longer-term concentrations might reach using common statistical tools. We compared the highest point in the range (called the “upper bound”) to the long-term comparison level.
Result: The high end of the range is above the comparison level at East Liverpool Water Plant.

Graph of manganese analysis at East Liverpool Water Plant

Top of page

Analysis of Information on Nearby Source of Manganese Emissions

What we looked at

What we found

Whether we could determine if the source was operating as usual during the sampling period

Information about the nearby source indicates that the facility had no significant change in production during the monitoring period.

The source of the key pollutant has an operating permit issued by OEPA that includes operating requirements.

Top of page

Additional Information

Technical Report for School: Assessing Outdoor Air Near Schools: Additional Monitoring at East Elementary School (East Liverpool, Ohio) (PDF) (23pp,3.3MB). The technical report is a follow-up to the original monitoring.  The report is geared toward risk assessors, risk managers, and other regulatory agencies.

Background on School Monitoring Effort General Questions and Answers for School Monitoring Effort

Jump to main content.