Jump to main content.

Designated Sole Source Aquifers in Region 5

Contact Information

EPA Region 5 Sole Source Aquifer Coordinator
William Spaulding
77 W. Jackson Blvd. (WG-15J)
Chicago, IL 60604

National Information

EPA Sole Source Aquifer Protection Program

Petitioners' Guidance

Table of Contents:

Region 5 Designated Sole Source Aquifers

Designated Sole Source Quifers in Region 5

Designated Sole Source Aquifers Region 5 map (PDF) (1pg, 556 K)


State Sole Source Aquifer Name Federal Register Citation Federal Register Date Project Review Area Map
IL Mahomet Aquifer 80 FR 14370 03/19/15 Mahomet Aquifer Map (PDF) (1 pg, 725 K)
IN St. Joseph Aquifer 53 FR 23682 06/23/88 St. Joseph Aquifer Map (PDF) (1 pg, 174 K)
MN Mille Lacs Aquifer 55 FR 43407 10/29/90 Mille Lacs Aquifer Map (PDF) (1 pg, 154 K)
OH Allen County Combined Aquifer 57 FR 53111 11/06/92 Allen County Combined Aquifer Map (PDF) (1 pg, 168 K)
OH Bass Island Aquifer (Catawba Island) 52 FR 37009 10/02/87 Bass Island Aquifer (Catawba Island) Map (PDF) (1 pg, 131 K)
OH Great Miami Buried Valley Aquifer 53 FR 15876
53 FR 25670


Great Miami Buried Valley Aquifer Map (PDF) (1 pg, 225 K)
OH Pleasant City Aquifer 52 FR 32342 08/27/87 Pleasant City Aquifer Map (PDF) (1 pg, 140 K)

Top of page

Areas of Concern / Sole Source Aquifer Protection Resources

If an SSA designation is approved, proposed federal financially assisted projects which have the potential to contaminate the aquifer are subject to EPA review. Proposed projects that are funded entirely by state, local, or private concerns are not subject to EPA review.

Examples of federally financially assisted projects which have been reviewed by EPA under the SSA Protection Program include:

Most projects referred to EPA for review meet all federal, state, and local ground water protection standards and are approved without any additional conditions being imposed. Occasionally, site- or project-specific concerns for ground water quality protection lead to specific recommendations or additional pollution prevention requirements as a condition of funding. In rare cases, federal funding has been denied when the applicant has been either unwilling or unable to modify the project.

Whenever feasible, EPA coordinates the review of proposed projects with other offices within EPA and with various federal, state, or local agencies that have a responsibility for ground water quality protection. Relevant information from these sources is given full consideration in the sole source aquifer review process and helps EPA to understand local hydrogeologic conditions and specific project design concerns. Project review coordination also helps ensure that SSA protection measures support or enhance existing ground water protection efforts, rather than duplicate them.

top of page

These common issues of concern may impact ground water quality:

  1. Stormwater Treatment and Disposal Practices - All federally assisted projects that may generate, increase, collect, or dispose of storm or surface water runoff from impervious surfaces, e.g., parking lots, roadways, roof tops, must use Best Management Practices (BMPs) to design all stormwater treatment and disposal systems. In addition, the use of shallow injection wells, i.e., dry wells, french drains, sumps, and drainfields, must be avoided whenever possible.
  2. Shallow Injection Wells - In those cases where stormwater treatment and disposal systems must utilize a shallow injection well, the project proponent must:
    1. notify and register the shallow injection well with the appropriate State Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program
    2. ensure that the shallow injection well(s) does not dispose any fluids that do not meet the State's Ground Water Quality Standards, and
    3. pay any applicable fees for registering the shallow injection wells.
  3. Sanitary Waste - Whenever feasible, a project should be connected to the Publicly Owned Treatment Works, i.e., the sewage treatment plant. In cases where connections to a POTW cannot be made, onsite sewage disposal systems can be utilized if:
    1. the appropriate State or local health department or district is notified and a permit is issued, and
    2. if applicable, the appropriate State UIC Program should also be notified if the onsite sewage system is designed to treat and dispose of equal to or more than 2000 gallons per day.

      In addition, in facilities that do not have connections to a POTW, garage bay and other floor/shop drains should not be connected to an onsite sewage system. Best Management Practices should be utilized to provide an alternative to installing garage bay and other drains, e.g., sloped garage bay and holding tanks. For more information on protection measures for onsite sanitary waste treatment and disposal, please contact your State or local health department.

  4. Potable Water - Whenever feasible, connections to a community water supply should be made. In cases where connections to a community water system cannot be made, a private well may be used to supply potable water if:
    1. the appropriate State or local health department or district is notified,
    2. the water should be tested for contaminants, such as bacteria and nitrate,
    3. all applicable pollution prevention techniques should be used to protect the private well from contamination. For more information on protection measures for users of private wells, please contact your State or local health department.
  5. Underground Storage Tanks - All underground storage tank systems must meet at a minimum the performance standards as specified in Volume 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 280, Subpart B of the Federal UST Regulations. These performance standards include tank and pipe design and construction, spill, and overfill equipment operating specifications, and proper installation procedures which must be followed. In addition, all UST systems must at a minimum:
    1. register the tank(s) with EPA or the appropriate State UST Program by completing the Notification for Underground Storage Tanks Form
    2. be in accordance with Subpart D of the Federal UST Regulations where leak detection must be performed once petroleum products are added to the tanks
    3. obtain an approved financial responsibility mechanism, in accordance with Subpart H of the Federal UST regulations, prior to putting the UST system into service. This mechanism will ensure that clean-up funds will be made available if/when needed to mitigate ground and drinking water or soil contamination.
  6. Community Water System Improvement - For community water systems that are requesting federal financial assistance for new improved water systems, EPA recommends that the applicant develop and implement a source water protection plan.  Interested applicants that have not done so should contact their applicable State Source Water Protection program for more information.

Top of page

Local Navigation

Jump to main content.