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Allied Paper Landfill/Bryant Mill Pond Area

Site Information
  • Kalamazoo, Mi (Kalamazoo County)
  • EPA ID# MID006007306
  • Alias(es): Allied Corp, Kalamazoo Plt
    Allied Paper/Portage Creek/Kalamazoo River
    Portage Creek
    Allied Paper Allied Paper/Portage CK/Kalamazoo River
Contact Information

Sign up for the Kalamazoo River listserv It's a subscription-based email list that EPA uses to deliver news about this site.

Community Involvement Coordinator
Diane Russell (russell.diane@epa.gov)

Remedial Project Manager
Michael Berkoff
312-353-8983 or 800-621-8431, ext. 38983

Michigan Department of Environmental Quality
Paul Bucholtz


(where to view written records)

Kalamazoo Public Library
315 South Rose
Kalamazoo, MI

Waldo Library
Western Michigan University
1903 West Michigan Avenue
Kalamazoo, MI

Charles Ransom Library
180 South Sherwood
Plainwell, MI

Allegan Public Library
331 Hubbard Street
Allegan, MI

Otsego District Library
219 South Farmer Street
Otsego, MI

Saugatuck-Douglas Library
10 Mixer Street
Douglas, MI


See also Kalamazoo River Superfund Project, Kalamazoo, Mi (Kalamazoo County)

The Allied Landfill is part of the Allied Paper/Portage Creek/Kalamazoo River Superfund site. The entire site is made up of five disposal areas, five paper mill properties, and an 80-mile stretch of the Kalamazoo River from Morrow Dam to Lake Michigan and a three-mile stretch of Portage Creek.

Allied Landfill occupies 89 acres including Portage Creek between Cork and Alcott streets in the city of Kalamazoo.

Site Contamination

A remedial investigation, a study of the nature and extent of contamination, was conducted by the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality and focused on polychlorinated biphenyls or PCBs.

Various paper manufacturing and disposal operations were conducted on the site until all paper manufacturing operations stopped in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Paper-making residuals were a byproduct of the paper recycling process and are the primary waste at Allied Landfill. Carbonless copy paper was one type of paper recycled at Allied Landfill. The ink in recycled carbonless copy paper contained PCBs and was mixed into the residuals during the paper recycling process. These PCB-contaminated residuals were disposed of at Allied Landfill. The residuals are mostly a mixture of clay and wood fiber and appear at the site as gray clay. As with most clay, the paper residuals are difficult for water to penetrate, a condition called low permeability.

Site Updates | Latest Update| Fact Sheets || Technical Documents

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Site Updates

Sign up for the Kalamazoo River listserv It's a subscription-based email list that EPA uses to deliver news about this site.

April 2016

On April 14, 2016, EPA issued a Unilateral Administrative Order to multiple responsible parties to conduct a time-critical removal action at the Otsego Township Dam Area. The order was issued to Georgia-Pacific LLC, International Paper Company, and Weyerhaeuser Company.

November 2015

EPA held a public meeting November 19, 2015 to go over the proposed plan.

September 2015

EPA plans to clean up contaminated material at Allied Paper Landfill, a former landfill in part of the Allied Paper/Portage Creek/Kalamazoo River Superfund Site called Operable Unit 1. The plan details EPA recommended cleanup options which include consolidating and capping material containing PCBs and other contaminants, and installing a groundwater monitoring network. Areas of the former landfill would be available for future reuse and redevelopment.
 Find out more about the plan by reading Allied Landfill Proposed Plan Fact Sheet, Frequently Asked Questions, Proposed Plan and Proposed Plan Tables.

The 60-day public comment period was from Sept. 30 – Dec. 1, 2015.

June 2015

EPA held a meeting to share more details of the redevelopment cleanup option being added to other cleanup options for Allied Landfill. You can view the presentation, Allied Paper Landfill Feasibility Study Addendum (PDF) (25pp, 642K) June 2015

You can view these documents to learn more about the new cleanup option in the Feasibility Addendum and the Groundwater report.

April 2015

EPA is reviewing information on a possible cleanup alternative that could be added to other cleanup alternatives discussed with the community in 2014. EPA, MDEQ and the City of Kalamazoo worked together to create a cleanup option for the Allied Landfill site, or Operable Unit 1 (OU1) of the Kalamazoo River Superfund Project.

Important goals guiding this development included:

You can view Allied Landfill Frequently Asked Questions (PDF) (2pp, 642K) to learn more.

EPA held a public meeting to go over next steps in the cleanup. You can view EPA’s presentation, Allied Paper Landfill Next Steps (PDF) (25pp, 1MB), or attend an upcoming availability session to learn more.  EPA expects to propose a cleanup plan for Allied Landfill later in 2015.

February 2014

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EPA held an Open House on Feb. 19, 2014 to share information about past cleanup actions, groundwater at the Allied Landfill, the nature and extent of contamination, the Superfund process and potential cleanup options for the landfill. EPA and EPA contractors along with Michigan Department of Environmental Quality staff were available to talk one-on-one throughout the session.

The information shared can be found in the posters listed below.

Information about the site


EPA has concluded that the groundwater at Allied Landfill does not pose a risk outside of the landfill waste. The city of Kalamazoo has raised concerns that contamination from Allied Landfill could migrate to the city’s well field and affect drinking water. In 2009, a study done by Millennium Holdings (then the owner and a responsible party for the cleanup of Allied Landfill) evaluated whether a pathway existed where the groundwater could flow from the Allied Landfill to the city’s Central Well Field. The study concluded that the presence of a groundwater migration pathway from Allied Landfill to the city’s Central Well Field is highly unlikely. EPA and MDEQ have determined that groundwater at Allied Landfill flows east towards Portage Creek and not northwest towards the city of Kalamazoo’s Central Well Field. Additionally, the low levels of contamination observed in the groundwater within the landfill are not reaching Portage Creek, as indicated by the groundwater data. Some of the specific findings of the study are:

Nature of Contamination at Allied Landfill

What are PCBs?

PCBs are a family of man-made chemicals that contain 209 individual compounds with different toxicity. PCBs were used widely as coolants and lubricants in transformers and other electrical equipment. Manufacturing of PCBs stopped in 1977 because of evidence that PCBs accumulate in the environment and may cause a health hazard.

The nature of PCBs is they are generally immobile, meaning they don’t move. PCBs are chemically and thermally stable so they will not change or decompose, have low solubility so they do not dissolve in water, and will strongly adhere to solids. Chemicals with low water solubility are more likely to be absorbed onto solids. In the case of Allied Landfill, PCBs stick to the paper residuals due to their high organic content. The PCBs are readily absorbed by organic materials such as sediment and soil. Because of these conditions, PCBs at Allied Landfill do not readily migrate out of the paper residuals. Currently the remaining potential sources of PCBs to Portage Creek from Allied Landfill are associated with erosion of contaminated soil and sediment along the edges of the landfill.

Early investigative efforts focused on PCBs because cleaning up that pollutant would also deal with other substances at the landfill. In addition to PCBs, inorganic materials and semi-volatile organic compounds were detected in soil, sediment and groundwater.

Risks Posed by Allied Landfill

Allied Landfill poses a risk to people’s health and the environment through exposure to the PCB-contaminated material at the landfill. People and animals can be exposed through direct contact with or through consuming the exposed PCB-contaminated material. Exposure could also occur if the contaminated residuals erode and move off-site.

If the contaminated residuals erode into Portage Creek, the fish can become contaminated and local anglers eating those fish would also become exposed. A prior cleanup action at the Bryant Mill Pond, which is located on the site, significantly reduced the PCB levels in fish at the Allied Landfill property by removing 150,000 cubic yards of waste from Portage Creek. PCB levels in the carp in Portage Creek have dropped since the removal action.

Erosion can be from natural or manmade causes. During any excavation work, there is a risk that the newly exposed contaminated paper residuals could travel off-site as dust emissions or from surface water runoff during rainstorms. A limited number of nearby commercial/industrial and residential properties contain contaminated paper residuals from the operations at Allied Landfill. Though there is a risk of direct contact exposure at these properties, PCB contamination is currently under clean soil or parking lots, which are barriers that prevent exposure.


Capping involves placing a protective cover over contaminated material such as landfill waste or contaminated soil. Caps do not destroy or remove contaminants. Instead, they isolate the contaminants to keep them in place, preventing the spread of contamination from erosion. Caps prevent wind from blowing contaminated material off-site. Caps also prevent people and wildlife from coming into direct contact with contamination. An important function of caps is that they help stop contamination from leaking into groundwater. They do this by stopping rain and snow from seeping through the material and carrying contaminants to the groundwater. The design of the cap for a site depends on several factors – the types and concentrations of contaminants, size of the site, amount of rainfall the area receives, and future use of the property. Groundwater monitoring wells placed around the capped area would be sampled routinely to make sure the contamination is contained.

The Superfund law and the National Contingency Plan, the federal government’s plan for responding to hazardous substance releases, as well as EPA guidance, state that EPA expects to use engineered barriers like caps for wastes that pose a relatively low long-term threat. Caps prevent exposure to large volumes of waste that can reliably be contained in place and have been selected for use at many Superfund sites across the country. Capping with groundwater monitoring is the remedy at Michigan Disposal Landfill, King Highway Landfill, 12th Street Landfill and the Willow Boulevard/A-Site Landfills, all in Michigan. These landfills have PCB-contaminated residuals, and the cleanups are operating successfully.

Excavation and Off-site Disposal

The first step in total removal would be to identify the exact limits of the contaminated areas at the site. To conduct the excavation, standard construction equipment like backhoes would be used. Equipment would be chosen based on how large and deep the contaminated area is and whether access is limited because of the presence of buildings or other structures. Excavated soil would be transported off-site to a licensed landfill that can accept the waste. Excavation would be complete when the remaining soil around the excavated area meets established cleanup levels. Clean soil from other locations outside of the landfill would be needed to fill in the excavated area. Any excavation would require extensive safety precautions to prevent a release of contamination to Portage Creek through erosion or to the air as dust emissions. Excavation around buildings would be a bit more involved and precautions would be needed so that no foundations are damaged.

Excavating contaminated soil may take several years and depends on several factors like the size and depth of the contaminated area and the funding available for the cleanup. Since EPA estimates there are about 1.5 million cubic yards of contaminated material at Allied Landfill, total removal could take about five years if 100 percent funding of the cleanup were available. This activity would require local traffic safety precautions as well as cause a greater amount of community disruption. In that scenario, there would be an average of 115 truck trips per day, year round, for five years. If 100 percent funding were not available, the cleanup would extend over a longer period of time.

Cost for Cleanup Options

The estimated cost for the consolidation, capping and monitoring option at Allied Paper Landfill is around $41 million. EPA estimated the option for total removal of waste would cost $189 million.

Paying for Cleanup

Allied Landfill’s former owner, Millenium Holdings, established a $50.5 million trust for cleanup of Allied Landfill as a part of a bankruptcy settlement in 2010. If funding were required beyond that trust account, a potential source would be EPA’s Superfund remedial budget, which provides funding to a wide variety of Superfund cleanup projects across the country. Nationwide, EPA’s remedial budget has been significantly reduced over the last five years and future years point to continued constrained budgets. The Allied Paper Landfill project would have to compete with other sites across the country for funding.

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