Diesel Particulate Matter
What is Diesel Particulate Matter?
Diesel particulate matter is part of a complex mixture that makes up diesel exhaust. Diesel exhaust is commonly found throughout the environment and is estimated by EPA's National Scale Assessment to contribute to the human health risk in New England. Diesel exhaust is composed of two phases, either gas or particle and both phases contribute to the risk. The gas phase is composed of many of the urban hazardous air pollutants, such as acetaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The particle phase also has many different types of particles that can be classified by size or composition. The size of diesel particulates that are of greatest health concern are those that are in the categories of fine, and ultra fine particles. The composition of these fine and ultra fine particles may be composed of elemental carbon with adsorbed compounds such as organic compounds, sulfate, nitrate, metals and other trace elements. Diesel exhaust is emitted from a broad range of diesel engines; the on road diesel engines of trucks, buses and cars and the off road diesel engines that include locomotives, marine vessels and heavy duty equipment.
How Do I Get Exposed to Diesel Particulate Matter?
The most common exposure pathway is breathing the air that contains the diesel particulate matter. The fine and ultra fine particles are respirable which means that they can avoid many of the human respiratory system defense mechanisms and enter deeply into the lung. In the National Scale Assessment, there are several steps used to characterize public health risks. For diesel particulate matter, not all of the steps could be completed but a qualitative assessment was provided that provided modeling estimates of population exposures. The estimated population exposure concentrations for diesel particulate matter were the highest exposure concentrations in all of the New England states. EPA has medium confidence in the overall NATA estimate for diesel particulate exposure based on the emissions and exposure modeling.. Exposure to diesel particulate matter comes from both on road and off road engine exhaust that is either directly emitted from the engines or aged through lingering in the atmosphere.
How Can Diesel Particulate Matter Affect My Health?
Diesel exhaust causes health effects from both short term or acute exposures and also long term chronic exposures, such as repeated occupational exposures. The type and severity of health effects depends upon several factors including the amount of chemical you are exposed to and the length of time you are exposed. Individuals also react differently to different levels of exposure. There is limited information on exposure to just diesel particulate matter but there is enough evidence to indicate that inhalation exposure to diesel exhaust causes acute and chronic health effects.
Acute exposure to diesel exhaust may cause irritation to the eyes, nose, throat and lungs, some neurological effects such as lightheadedness. Acute exposure may also elicit a cough or nausea as well as exacerbate asthma. Chronic exposure in experimental animal inhalation studies have shown a range of dose dependent lung inflammation and cellular changes in the lung and there are also diesel exhaust immunological effects. Based upon human and laboratory studies, there is considerable evidence that diesel exhaust is a likely carcinogen. Human epidemiological studies demonstrate an association between diesel exhaust exposure and increased lung cancer rates in occupational settings.
At What Levels Should I Be Concerned?
EPA's National Scale Assessment uses several types of health hazard information to provide a quantitative "threshold of concern" or a health benchmark concentration at which it is expected that no adverse health effects occur at exposures to that level. Health effects information on carcinogenic, short and long term noncarcinogenic end points are used to establish selective protective health levels to compare to the modeled exposures levels. Unfortunately the exposure response data in human studies are considered too uncertain to develop a carcinogenic unit risk for EPA's use. There is a Reference Concentration (RFC) that is used as a health benchmark protective of chronic noncarcinogenic health effects but it is for diesel exhaust and not specifically set for diesel particulate matter which is what was modeled in NATA. The RFC for diesel exhaust, which includes diesel particulate matter is 5 ug/m3. This value is similar to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard established for fine particulate matter which is 15ug/m3.
What Can I Do To Minimize My Risk?
Avoid idling if you have a diesel vehicle, this means turn off your engine when your vehicle is not in motion.
Keep your diesel vehicle well tuned and maintained.
If possible, retrofit diesel engines with pollution control devices.
If purchasing trucks or buses, consider buying those that meet EPA's new standards ahead of schedule.
Sources of Information