Keystone Color Works, Inc.
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EPA Project Manager
Jeanna R. Henry
Office of Pennsylvania Remediation
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - Region III
1650 Arch Street
Mail code: 3LC30
Philadelphia, PA 19103-202
Phone: (215) 814-2820
Email : firstname.lastname@example.org
Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection
Ryan J. Carr, P.G., Licensed Professional Geologist
Southcentral Regional Office
PA DEP Environmental Cleanup and Brownfields
909 Elmerton Avenue
Harrisburg, PA 17110
EPA’s review of available information indicates that there are no unaddressed releases of hazardous waste or hazardous constituents from the Keystone Color Works, Inc. facility (KCW or Site). EPA sets national goals to measure progress toward meeting the nation’s major environmental goals. For Corrective Action, EPA evaluates two key environmental indicators for each facility: (1) current human exposures under control and (2) migration of contaminated groundwater under control. EPA determined that the Site met both of the EI indicators on March 6, 2014.
EPA is currently in the process of selecting a proposed remedy for the Site. Once a proposed remedy has been selected, EPA will issue a Statement of Basis that will be subject to public notice and comment. The Statement of Basis will describe the proposed remedy and EPA’s justification for its selection.
The Site is located at 151 West Gay Street and is comprised of two (2) adjoining parcels totaling 0.725 acres. The building and/or former building components cover much of the property. The eastern third of the property consists of a concrete pad that had been the floor for a section of the former building that was demolished in the 1990s. The remainder of the property consists of narrow grassy strips of land located to the north and west of the building.
The earliest known use of the property was in the manufacture of farm machinery from 1887 to 1908. Keystone has produced organic and inorganic pulp pigments for the wallpaper and surface coating trades at the facility since 1919. Hazardous substances, in the form of raw materials, finished product, and waste materials, have historically been stored throughout the building. Until the 1980s, pigment production consisted of mixing raw materials in 300 and 3,000-gallon wooden tanks, collecting the resultant pigment solid, pressing it in filter presses to remove the water, and packaging the finished product.
KCW is enrolled in EPA’s One Cleanup Program, the Agency’s vision for how different cleanup programs at all levels of government can work together to meet that goal, and ensure that resources, activities, and results are effectively coordinated and communicated to the public. It is a long term initiative designed to support the ongoing planning and quality improvement efforts of EPA cleanup programs. Investigation and remediation of the Site is being primarily addressed in accordance with Pennsylvania’s Land Recycling and Environmental Remediation Standards Act (Act 2).KCW is part of a larger cleanup initiative referred to as the Northwest Triangle (NWT) which consists of a multi-block area of separate properties that cover 14.5 acres in the northwestern corner of the City of York. The City of York Redevelopment Authority (RDA), a non-profit organization, is remediating, rehabilitating, and/or redeveloping these impacted and underutilized properties as part of the city’s revitalization activities. The NWT area is generally bounded to the north and west by the Codorus Creek, and is bisected by various rail lines operated by York
Between 2004 and 2012, a variety of surface and subsurface investigations were conducted at the Site. Lead contamination was discovered in the surface and subsurface soils outside of the building footprint, in addition to the discovery of lead and arsenic contamination in the subsurface soils beneath the existing building concrete slab. No contamination was discovered in the groundwater beneath the Site.
Contaminated soil was excavated from along the western side of the KCW building to a depth of up to approximately two feet in the areas where exceedances of PADEP’s Residential Statewide Health Standards (SHSs) were detected. Following soil excavation, post-excavation confirmatory soil sampling for lead was conducted and all post excavation sample results were below the applicable PADEP Residential SHSs. Approximately 156 tons (104 cy) of contaminated soils were removed from the Site.
With respect to the subsurface soils beneath the existing building concrete slab, excavation and removal of these soils is not considered to be practical without the demolition of the building and removal of the concrete floor slab. Because the concrete floor slab has been a stable and competent barrier to prevent any direct contact exposures to soils below the floor slab, remediation of these soils has been accomplished through in-place containment and exposure pathway elimination.
On October 14, 2013, a revised Remedial Investigation Report and Final Report for the NWT properties was submitted to the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP) for final review and approval.
Some contamination remains in-place at the Site in the soils beneath the existing building concrete floor slab. Lead and arsenic were detected in the soils beneath the concrete floor at concentrations above PADEP’s Residential SHSs. However, exposure pathways to contaminated soils have been eliminated through in-place containment under the existing building concrete slab.
- June 1, 2004 - A preliminary Phase I Environmental Assessment Report that addressed all of the NWT properties of concern was completed by Edge Environmental, Inc.
- June 2, 2005 – A Revised Phase I Environmental Site Assessment of the properties of concern was completed by Pennoni Associates, Inc.
- December 21, 2005 – GTS Technologies, Inc. completed an Interim Site Characterization Report for Keystone.
- October 14, 2013 – Act 2 Revised Final Report for NWT Properties prepared by ARC Group, Inc.
- Corrective Action Statement of Basis [PDF, 4536 KB, 40 pages About PDF]
- Environmental Indicator Determination - Human Exposures [PDF, 421 KB, 7 pages About PDF]
- Environmental Indicator Determination -Groundwater Migration [PDF, 524 KB, 9 pages About PDF]
- Submit a FOIA Request
Get instructions on how to submit a FOIA request. Additional fee for requests over 100 pages.
Some of the site's key documents of interest:
Documents and reports regarding this facility also can be reviewed in person at these locations:
U.S. EPA Region III
Keystone Color Works, Inc.
Keystone Site Remediation Photos [PDF,298 KB, 2 pages About PDF]
Keystone Site Map [PDF,221 KB, 1 page About PDF]
Click on Thumbnail to Enlarge Photo
Plans for beneficial use of the NWT properties are under development, but are expected to consist of a mixture of residential, commercial, and potentially light industrial.
For more information about EPA’s corrective action webpage, including Environmental Indicators, please visit our site at: www.epa.gov/reg3wcmd/ca/correctiveaction.htm