E. Management Measure for Operation and
MaintenanceIncorporate pollution prevention procedures into the
operation and maintenance of roads, highways, and bridges to reduce
pollutant loadings to surface waters.
This management measure
is intended to be applied by States to existing, restored, and
rehabilitated roads, highways, and bridges. Under the Coastal Zone Act
Reauthorization Amendments of 1990, States are subject to a number of
requirements as they develop coastal NPS programs in conformity with this
management measures and will have some flexibility in doing so. The
application of measures by States is described more fully in Coastal
Nonpoint Pollution Control Program: Program Development and Approval
Guidance, published jointly by the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
(NOAA) of the U.S. Department of Commerce.
Substantial amounts of
eroded material and other pollutants can be generated by operation and
maintenance procedures for roads, highways, and bridges, and from sparsely
vegetated areas, cracked pavements, potholes, and poorly operating urban
runoff control structures. This measure is intended to ensure that
pollutant loadings from roads, highways, and bridges are minimized by the
development and implementation of a program and associated practices to
ensure that sediment and toxic substance loadings from operation and
maintenance activities do not impair coastal surface waters. The program
to be developed, using the practices described in this management measure,
should consist of and identify standard operating procedures for nutrient
and pesticide management, road salt use minimization, and maintenance
guidelines (e.g., capture and contain paint chips and other particulates
from bridge maintenance operations, resurfacing, and pothole repairs).
management measure for operation and maintenance was selected because (1)
it is recommended by FHWA as a cost-effective practice (FHWA, 1991); (2)
it is protective of the human environment (Puget Sound Water Quality
Authority, 1989); (3) it is effective in controlling erosion by
revegetating bare slopes (AASHTO, 1991b); (4) it is helpful in minimizing
polluted runoff from road pavements (Transportation Research Board, 1991);
and (5) both Federal (Richardson, 1974) and State highway agencies
(Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, 1989; Pitt, 1973) advocate highway
maintenance as an effective practice for minimizing pollutant loadings.
Maintenance of erosion and sediment control practices is of critical
importance. Both temporary and permanent controls require frequent and
periodic cleanout of accumulated sediment. Any trapping or filtering
device, such as silt fences, sediment basins, buffers, inlets, and check
dams, should be checked and cleaned out when approximately 50 percent of
their capacity is reached, as determined by the erodible nature of the
soil, flow velocity, and quantity of runoff. Seasonal and climatic
differences may require more frequent cleanout of these structures. The
sediments removed from these control devices should be deposited in
permanently stabilized areas to prevent further erosion and sediment from
reaching drainages and receiving streams. After periods of use, control
devices may require replacement of deteriorated materials such as straw
bales and silt fence fabrics, or restoration and reconstruction of
sediment basins and riprap installations.
Permanent erosion controls such as vegetated filter strips, grassed
swales, and velocity dissipators should be inspected periodically to
determine their integrity and continued effectiveness. Continual
deterioration or damage to these controls may indicate a need for better
design or construction.
As discussed more fully at the
beginning of this chapter and in Chapter
1, the following practices are described for illustrative purposes
only. State programs need not require implementation of these practices.
However, as a practical matter, EPA anticipates that the management
measure set forth above generally will be implemented by applying one or
more management practices appropriate to the source, location, and
climate. The practices set forth below have been found by EPA to be
representative of the types of practices that can be applied successfully
apply to achieve the management measure described above.
a. Seed and fertilize, seed and mulch, and/or sod damaged
vegetated areas and slopes.
b. Establish pesticide/herbicide use and nutrient management
Refer to the Management Measure for Construction
Site Chemical Control in this chapter.
c. Restrict herbicide and pesticide use in highway rights-of-way
to applicators certified under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and
Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) to ensure safe and effective application.
d. The use of chemicals such as soil stabilizers, dust
palliatives, sterilants, and growth inhibitors should be limited to the
best estimate of optimum application rates. All feasible measures should
be taken to avoid excess application and consequent intrusion of such
chemicals into surface runoff.
e. Sweep, vacuum, and wash residential/urban streets and parking
f. Collect and remove road debris.
g. Cover salt storage piles and other deicing materials to
reduce contamination of surface waters. Locate them outside the 100-year
h. Regulate the application of deicing salts to prevent
oversalting of pavement.
i. Use specially equipped salt application trucks.
j. Use alternative deicing materials, such as sand or salt
substitutes, where sensitive ecosystems should be protected.
k. Prevent dumping of accumulated snow into surface
l. Maintain retaining walls and pavements to minimize cracks and
m. Repair potholes.
n. Encourage litter and debris control management.
o. Develop an inspection program to ensure that general
maintenance is performed on urban runoff and NPS pollution control
To be effective, erosion and sediment control devices and practices
must receive thorough and periodic inspection checks. The following is a
suggested checklist for the inspection of erosion and sediment controls
(AASHTO Operating Subcommittee on Design, 1990):
p. Ensure that energy dissipators and velocity controls to
minimize runoff velocity and erosion are maintained.
q. Dispose of accumulated sediment collected from urban runoff
management and pollution control facilities, and any wastes generated
during maintenance operations, in accordance with appropriate local,
State, and Federal regulations.
r. Use techniques such as suspended tarps, vacuums, or booms to
reduce, to the extent practicable, the delivery to surface waters of
pollutants used or generated during bridge maintenance (e.g., paint,
s. Develop education programs to promote the practices listed
- Clean out sediment basins and traps; ensure that structures are
- Inspect silt fences and replace deteriorated fabrics and wire
connections; properly dispose of deteriorated materials.
- Renew riprapped areas and reapply supplemental rock as necessary.
- Repair/replace check dams and brush barriers; replace or stabilize
straw bales as needed.
- Regrade and shape berms and drainage ditches to ensure that runoff
is properly channeled.
- Apply seed and mulch where bare spots appear, and replace matting
material if deteriorated.
- Ensure that culverts and inlets are protected from siltation.
- Inspect all permanent erosion and sediment controls on a scheduled,
Preventive maintenance is a time-proven,
cost-effective management approach. Operation schedules and maintenance
procedures to restore vegetation, proper management of salt and fertilizer
application, regular cleaning of urban runoff structures, and frequent
sweeping and vacuuming of urban streets have effective results in
pollution control. Litter control, clean-up, and fix-up practices are a
low-cost means for eliminating causes of pollution, as is the proper
handling of fertilizers, pesticides, and other toxic materials including
deicing salts and abrasives. Table 4-30
(18k) presents summary information on the cost and
effectiveness of operation and maintenance practices for roads, highways,
and bridges. Many States and communities are already implementing several
of these practices within their budget limitations. As shown in Table 4-30 (18k), the use of road salt
alternatives such as calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) can be very costly.
Some researchers have indicated, however, that reductions in corrosion of
infrastructure, damage to roadside vegetation, and the quantity of
material that needs to be applied may offset the higher cost of CMA. Use
of road salt minimization practices such as salt storage protection and
special salt spreading equipment reduces the amount of salt that a State
or community must purchase. Consequently, implementation of these
practices can pay for itself through savings in salt purchasing costs.
Similar programs such as nutrient and pesticide management can also lead
to decreased expenditures for materials.
CMA Eligible for Matching FundsCalcium magnesium acetate
(CMA) is now eligible for Federal matching funds under the Bridge Program
of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991.
The Act provides 80 percent funding for use of CMA on salt-sensitive
bridges in order to protect against corrosion and to extend their useful
life. CMA can also be used to protect vegetation from salt damage in
environmentally sensitive areas.
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