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Landfill Methane Outreach Program

Basic Funding Information

For stakeholders new to LFG energy projects, a basic overview of project economics and financing is provided below.  More detailed information about project economics is available in the Project Development Handbook, which provides guidance for performing site-specific economic analyses and discusses the various financing alternatives available for LFG energy projects.  The handbook also includes case studies for internal combustion engine projects and direct-use projects.

LFG is a valuable renewable resource and LFG energy projects help to prevent landfill methane from migrating into the atmosphere and contributing to local smog and global climate change. A key component to successful LFG energy projects is identifying and using available financial mechanisms to promote the development of LFG resources. Funding resources may include grants, loans, tax credits and exemptions, and production incentives. It is important that stakeholders understand the range of available financial mechanisms to select the best options to meet project goals.

Evaluating the Economics of an LFG Energy Project

LMOP provides the LFGcost-Web economic assessment tool to help program partners perform preliminary cost assessments.

Conducting an economic assessment helps to determine if a project is suited for a landfill.  Evaluating a project typically consists of 5 steps:

  1. Quantify capital and operations and maintenance expenses
  2. Estimate energy sales revenues and other revenues streams
  3. Assess the feasibility of the proposed project design, including modifications to the project design to improve project economics
  4. Repeat steps 1-3 for any project alternatives
  5. Assess project financing options

Learn more about evaluating project economics in the Project Development Handbook.

Financing Approaches

Many financing approaches may be available for a project, including:

  • Private Equity Financing – Widely used for LFG energy projects, it involves an investor who is willing to fund all or a portion of the project in return for a share of project ownership. For small projects without access to municipal bonds, private equity financing may be one of the few ways to obtain financing.
  • Project Finance – Lenders consider a project’s projected revenues rather than the assets of the developer to ensure repayment. This allows the developer to obtain financing while retaining ownership control of the project.
  • Municipal Bond Financing – In the case of municipally owned landfills and municipal end users, the local government might issue tax-preferred bonds to finance the LFG energy project. This approach is the most cost-effective way to finance a project, because the interest rate is often 1 or 2 percent below commercial debt interest rates, and can often be structured for long repayment periods.
  • Direct Municipal Funding – The operating budget of the city, county, landfill authority or other municipal government is used to fund the LFG energy project. It eliminates the need to obtain outside financing or project partners, and it avoids the delays caused from their project evaluation needs.
  • Lease Financing – The project owner/operator leases all or part of the LFG energy project assets, which usually allows the transfer of tax benefits or credits to an entity that can best make use of them. The benefit of lease financing is that it frees up capital funds of the owner/operator while allowing them control of the project. The disadvantages include complex accounting and liability issues, as well as loss of tax benefits to the project owner/operator.

Learn more about evaluating project economics in the Project Development Handbook. Details about available federal and state resources that can be applied to one or more of the financing approaches are available from the funding guide website.  LMOP encourages stakeholders to reach out to the points of contacts listed for each resource to learn more about how financing approaches have been successful. 

Finding Additional Information

DSIRE logoEPA does not intend for this website to provide an exhaustive list of available funding programs for LFG energy projects. The Database of State Incentives for Renewable Energy (DSIRE), Exiting EPA funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and managed by LMOP State Partner North Carolina Solar Center, provides a comprehensive source of information on state, local, utility and selected federal incentives that promote renewable energy resources, including LFG. The DSIRE frequently asked questions page Exiting EPA provides helpful tips on using the database.

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