Hudson River PCBs Superfund Site
Hudson River Cleanup
On this page:
- Why is the cleanup of the upper Hudson River needed?
- What's being done to address the contamination?
- What comes next?
The 315-mile Hudson River is steeped in American history. It guided Henry Hudson in search of a northwest passage and served commerce as a transportation route during the Industrial Revolution. Industry provided jobs, created communities, and brought economic growth to the region. However, an era of industrial pollution left its mark on the treasured river. Today, 200 miles of the Hudson River is classified by EPA as a Superfund site – one of the largest in the country.
Polychlorinated biphenyls, or PCBs, were widely used as a fire preventive and insulator in the manufacture of electrical devices, like transformers and capacitors, because of their ability to withstand exceptionally high temperatures. During a 30-year period ending in 1977, when EPA banned the production of PCBs, it is estimated that approximately 1.3 million pounds of PCBs were discharged into the Hudson River from two General Electric (GE) capacitor manufacturing plants located in the towns of Fort Edward and Hudson Falls, New York. Once PCBs entered the river, they were deposited and mixed with the sediments at many locations on the river bottom and at some locations along the shoreline in the floodplain.
PCBs build up in the environment (bioaccumulate), increasing in concentration as you move up the food chain. The primary health risk associated with the site is the accumulation of PCBs in the human body through eating contaminated fish. Since 1976, high levels of PCBs in fish have led New York State to close various recreational and commercial fisheries and to issue advisories restricting the consumption of fish caught in the Hudson River. PCBs are considered probable human carcinogens and are linked to other adverse health effects such as low birth weight, thyroid disease, and learning, memory, and immune system disorders. PCBs in the river sediment also affect fish and wildlife.
In 1984, 200 miles of river, between Hudson Falls and the Battery in New York City, was placed on EPA’s National Priorities List of the country’s most contaminated hazardous waste sites.
Today the Hudson River exists as one of the most extensively studied rivers in the country, having been monitored almost continuously for a period of more than 25 years. Ongoing evaluations of water quality, sediment, air quality, fish, and wildlife by the Federal Government and the State of New York demonstrated that the river was not cleaning itself and PCBs in the sediment posed a serious risk to human health and the environment. Studies conducted to evaluate the extent of the problem revealed that most of the contaminated sediments were in “hot spots” situated in a 40-mile stretch of the river between the town of Fort Edward and the Troy Dam.
In February 2002, EPA issued a Record of Decision (ROD) for the Hudson River PCBs Superfund Site that called for targeted environmental dredging of approximately 2.65 million cubic yards of PCB-contaminated sediment from a 40-mile section of the Upper Hudson River from Fort Edward to Troy, NY. Events between the 2002 ROD and the 2009 cleanup can be seen in the Roadmap: Sequence of Key Events [PDF 1.1 MB, 1 pg]
Dredge areas were identified using the results of a multi-year sediment sampling program conducted by GE that began in 2002 and generated more than 60,000 sediment samples taken from the bottom of the Upper Hudson River.
The site is divided into the Upper Hudson River, which runs from Hudson Falls to the Federal Dam at Troy (a distance of approximately 40 miles), and the Lower Hudson River, which runs from the Federal Dam at Troy to the southern tip of Manhattan at the Battery in New York City. For purposes of the dredging project, EPA further divided the Upper Hudson River area into three main sections known as River Section 1 (from the former Fort Edward Dam to the Thompson Island Dam), River Section 2 (from the Thompson Island Dam to the Northumberland Dam), and River Section 3 (from the Northumberland Dam to the Federal Dam in Troy). Within the river sections, dredging was conducted in areas of approximately five acres each, called “certification units” (CUs).
The dredging of river bottom sediment began in 2009 and was completed in fall 2015. The dredging occurred in two phases. The first, year-long phase of dredging occurred between May and November 2009. During Phase 1, approximately 283,000 cubic yards of contaminated sediment was removed from a six-mile stretch of the Upper Hudson River near the town of Fort Edward, NY. After an extensive evaluation by an independent panel of scientists and input from a broad range of stakeholders in 2010, EPA developed plans for the second part of the cleanup.
Phase 2 began in June 2011 and was conducted at full production to remove the remainder of the contaminated river sediment targeted for dredging. During Phase 2, approximately 2.5 million cubic yards was dredged. In all, over six seasons of dredging, approximately 2.75 million cubic yards of PCB-contaminated sediment was removed from the river bottom. The 2015 Phase 2 Overview fact sheet includes a series of maps which show the locations where dredging took place.
Some areas are repopulated with aquatic plants in the growing season following the year in which the area is dredged. Habitat reconstruction will follow the completion of dredging and will continue into 2016. GE’s 100-acre processing facility in Fort Edward, which was built to process and transport the dredged material offsite, will be taken apart and decontaminated in accordance with an EPA-approved facility demobilization and restoration plan (see What comes next? for more information).
Both phases of the cleanup were conducted by GE under the terms of a November 2006 legal agreement. In December 2010, GE agreed to conduct and pay for the second phase of cleanup. All of the dredging and related work was conducted by GE with EPA oversight.
The 2002 Record of Decision, which called for dredging in the upper 40 miles of the Hudson River, also stated that PCB-contamination in low-lying shoreline areas subject to flooding, called floodplains, must also be evaluated. As the dredging project transitions to the long-term monitoring phase, a comprehensive study of the contamination in the floodplains is getting underway. The comprehensive investigation will include an assessment of cleanup options (see What comes next? for more information).
EPA is the lead agency for cleanup of the Hudson River PCBs Superfund site. The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) is the support agency for this project. The NYSDEC, The United States Department of Interior (Fish and Wildlife Service) and the United States Department of Commerce (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) are federal trustees of natural resources.
What comes next?
Processing Facility Demobilization and Restoration
After considering public input, the EPA has approved a plan that that outlines the multi-step process GE will follow to dismantle and decontaminate the 110 acre sediment processing facility in Fort Edward that was built to support the dredging of the Hudson River PCBs Superfund Site. The plan, called the Processing Facility Demobilization and Restoration Plan, is required by the 2006 legal agreement between General Electric and EPA to conduct the dredging work.
With the sixth and final season of dredging now complete, the approval provides permission to GE to formally begin the demobilization and restoration process as outlined in the plan. The plan details the decontamination steps, including decontamination of the infrastructure, such as concrete slabs, roadways, train tracks and buildings.
Infrastructure will remain in place to the extent possible, based on requests from the property owners. The final determination on what will be left in place will depend on ongoing discussions among the parties, the results of sampling, and the ability for the various components of the site to be decontaminated. In general it is anticipated that buildings, concrete/asphalt roads and surfaces, wharf and the rail yard will remain after demobilization is complete. The Town and Village of Fort Edward are exploring opportunities for reuse of the site to support future economic development in the area.
The demobilization process will continue into 2016. In general, the multi-step demobilization process includes:
- Decontamination of equipment and infrastructure (e.g. unloading equipment, buildings, concrete surfaces etc.)
- Sampling of equipment/materials
- Final placement of equipment/materials (e.g. sale, reuse, salvage/recycling, or off-site disposal)
- Environmental sampling (soil, groundwater, sediment and surface water)
- Property restoration
During the decontamination process, equipment will be staged onsite until it can be sampled to confirm that it has been properly decontaminated. The results of the sampling will be used to determine the final placement of the equipment and materials which could include reuse, sale, salvage/recycling, or off-site disposal. Only properly decontaminated equipment/materials will be transported off-site for reuse, sale or salvage/recycling. Materials transported off-site for disposal will be sent to an EPA-approved facility.
Similar to the equipment/materials decontamination process described above, site infrastructure will also be decontaminated and tested for PCBs. The results of this testing will determine if additional decontamination procedures are necessary and if infrastructure can remain in place.
After decontamination procedures are complete and all contaminated materials are removed from the site, an environmental sampling program will be conducted. The sampling program will include soil, groundwater, sediment and surface water sampling. The results of this sampling will be compared to pre-construction conditions and to applicable criteria.
After demobilization is complete, property restoration will be conducted. The extent of property restoration will depend on what infrastructure remains on site. In general, restoration activities will include grading of the site and seeding/planting of disturbed areas.
After the completion of all required activities, the properties will be transferred back to their respective owners. Two of the site properties are currently owned by EPA. It is anticipated that the Wharf area will be transferred back to the New York State Canal Corporation, and the access road will be provided to the local municipality.
Operation, Maintenance and Monitoring Program (OM&M)
Once facility demobilization and restoration has been completed and the required project reports are prepared and approved by the EPA, the dredging portion of the cleanup will be considered complete and the Operation, Maintenance & Monitoring (OM&M) phase of the project will begin. During this phase, monitoring is conducted to track the ongoing recovery of the river and the effectiveness of the cleanup over time. The EPA will also conduct five-year reviews of the project.
The OM&M program includes the following components:
Water Column Monitoring:
Water column monitoring will continue in order to assess PCB concentrations throughout the Upper and Lower Hudson River and to monitor the PCB transport from the Upper Hudson River to the Lower Hudson River. Upper Hudson River sampling will occur weekly for at least three years, at which time the EPA will determine if modifications to the OM&M water column monitoring program are necessary. The EPA expects water column monitoring to continue into the forseeable future.
Sediment monitoring will also continue in order to assess PCB concentrations over time in the sediment throughout the Upper Hudson River in dredged and non-dredged areas.
Sediment samples will be collected in both dredged and non-dredged areas. The results will be compared to previously collected samples.
Fish monitoring will continue to be performed during the OM&M program to assess PCB concentration levels within various fish species throughout the Upper and Lower Hudson River. Also, additional fish samples will be collected at various locations throughout the Lower Hudson River to assist the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) and New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) in assessing fish consumption advisories. Fish samples will be collected at various locations throughout the Upper and Lower Hudson River for the foreseeable future.
Some dredge areas were repopulated with aquatic plants in the growing season following the year in which the area was dredged. The habitat replacement program was designed to limit impacts, and restore the function of river habitats from the dredging project and includes reconstruction, replacement, and/or stabilization of river bottom, submerged aquatic vegetation, wetlands, and shoreline areas.
The evaluation of habitat begins immediately after planting is completed. Each habitat type will be evaluated, including submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) and riverine fringing wetland (RFW). Evaluation criteria has been established for each habitat type. Aquatic organisms in the dredged areas will also be monitored.
Following completion of the dredging operations, monitoring will continue to be conducted to assess the long-term effectiveness of the caps that were placed on the river bottom to isolate small amounts of PCBs that remained after dredging. Surveys will be conducted to evaluate the cap at one, five and ten years after the cap was put into place and will continue at ten-year intervals into perpetuity. Surveys will also take place after high flow events.
Graphic: Looking Ahead: Long-Term River Monitoring Program (click image to enlarge)
Under the Superfund law, five-year reviews are required when hazardous substances, pollutants or contaminants remain at a site that would not allow for unrestricted use. The purpose of the five-year review is to ensure that implemented remedial actions are working as intended and are protective of human health and the environment. The first five-year review for the Hudson River dredging project occurred in 2012 and concluded that the cleanup is meeting, or is expected to meet, the goals that were set by the EPA for the project. The next five-year review is expected to be completed by April 2017.
Investigating the Floodplains
As part of the Hudson River cleanup, the floodplains (low-lying shoreline areas) of the Upper Hudson River are also being evaluated for the presence of PCBs.
In October 2014 the EPA announced that GE has agreed to conduct a comprehensive study (Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study) of PCB contamination in the floodplains. Under the agreement GE will investigate the PCB contamination in a 40-mile stretch of the Hudson River floodplain from Hudson Falls to Troy, New York. This study will include an evaluation of human and ecological risks and potential long-term clean up solutions.
Since 2000, the EPA, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and GE have collected over 7,000 soil samples on more than 500 properties. GE also has installed soil or stone covers to prevent exposure to PCBs and/or installed warning signs on several properties under a 2008 legal agreement with EPA. These measures are temporary, pending completion of the comprehensive study and the selection of a final cleanup plan for the floodplain. The EPA will decide on the final cleanup plan with input from the public.
Additional floodplain sampling will be conducted in 2016, as part of the comprehensive investigation of the site.