§98.30 Definition of the source category.
(a) Stationary fuel combustion sources are devices that combust solid, liquid, or gaseous fuel, generally for the purposes of producing electricity, generating steam, or providing useful heat or energy for industrial, commercial, or institutional use, or reducing the volume of waste by removing combustible matter. Stationary fuel combustion sources include, but are not limited to, boilers, simple and combined-cycle combustion turbines, engines, incinerators, and process heaters.
(b) This source category does not include:
(1) Portable equipment, as defined in §98.6.
(2) Emergency generators and emergency equipment, as defined in §98.6.
(3) Irrigation pumps at agricultural operations.
(4) Flares, unless otherwise required by provisions of another subpart of this part to use methodologies in this subpart.
(5) Electricity generating units that are subject to subpart D of this part.
(c) For a unit that combusts hazardous waste (as defined in §261.3 of this chapter), reporting of GHG emissions is not required unless either of the following conditions apply:
(1) Continuous emission monitors (CEMS) are used to quantify CO2 mass emissions.
(2) Any fuel listed in Table C-1 of this subpart is also combusted in the unit. In this case, report GHG emissions from combustion of all fuels listed in Table C-1 of this subpart.
(d) You are not required to report GHG emissions from pilot lights. A pilot light is a small auxiliary flame that ignites the burner of a combustion device when the control valve opens.
§98.40 Definition of the source category.
(a) The electricity generation source category comprises electricity generating units that are subject to the requirements of the Acid Rain Program and any other electricity generating units that are required to monitor and report to EPA CO2 mass emissions year-round according to 40 CFR part 75.
(b) This source category does not include portable equipment, emergency equipment, or emergency generators, as defined in §98.6.
§98.50 Definition of Source Category.
The adipic acid production source category consists of all adipic acid production facilities that use oxidation to produce adipic acid.
§98.60 Definition of the source category.
(a) A primary aluminum production facility manufactures primary aluminum using the Hall-Héroult manufacturing process. The primary aluminum manufacturing process comprises the following operations:
(1) Electrolysis in prebake and Søderberg cells.
(2) Anode baking for prebake cells.
(b) This source category does not include experimental cells or research and development process units.
§98.70 Definition of Source Category.
The ammonia manufacturing source category comprises the process units listed in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section.
(a) Ammonia manufacturing processes in which ammonia is manufactured from a fossil-based feedstock produced via steam reforming of a hydrocarbon.
(b) Ammonia manufacturing processes in which ammonia is manufactured through the gasification of solid and liquid raw material.
§98.80 Definition of the source category.
The cement production source category consists of each kiln and each in-line kiln/raw mill at any portland cement manufacturing facility including alkali bypasses, and includes kilns and in-line kiln/raw mills that burn hazardous waste.
§98.90 Definition of the source category.
(a) The electronics manufacturing source category consists of any of the production processes listed in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(5) of this section that use fluorinated GHGs or N2O. Facilities that may use these processes include, but are not limited to, facilities that manufacture micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), liquid crystal displays (LCDs), photovoltaic cells (PV), and semiconductors (including light-emitting diodes (LEDs)).
(1) Any electronics production process in which the etching process uses plasma-generated fluorine atoms and other reactive fluorine-containing fragments, that chemically react with exposed thin-films (e.g., dielectric, metals) or substrate (e.g., silicon) to selectively remove portions of material.
(2) Any electronics production process in which chambers used for depositing thin films are cleaned periodically using plasma-generated fluorine atoms and other reactive fluorine-containing fragments.
(3) Any electronics production process in which wafers are cleaned using plasma generated fluorine atoms or other reactive fluorine-containing fragments to remove residual material from wafer surfaces, including the wafer edge.
(4) Any electronics production process in which the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process or other manufacturing processes use N2O.
(5) Any electronics manufacturing production process in which fluorinated GHGs are used as heat transfer fluids to cool process equipment, to control temperature during device testing, to clean substrate surfaces and other parts, and for soldering (e.g., vapor phase reflow).
§98.110 Definition of the source category.
The ferroalloy production source category consists of any facility that uses pyrometallurgical techniques to produce any of the following metals: ferrochromium, ferromanganese, ferromolybdenum, ferronickel, ferrosilicon, ferrotitanium, ferrotungsten, ferrovanadium, silicomanganese, or silicon metal.
§98.120 Definition of the source category.
(a) The fluorinated gas production source category consists of processes that produce a fluorinated gas from any raw material or feedstock chemical, except for processes that generate HFC-23 during the production of HCFC-22.
(b) To produce a fluorinated gas means to manufacture a fluorinated gas from any raw material or feedstock chemical. Producing a fluorinated gas includes producing a fluorinated GHG as defined at §98.410(b). Producing a fluorinated gas also includes the manufacture of a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) or hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) from any raw material or feedstock chemical, including manufacture of a CFC or HCFC as an isolated intermediate for use in a process that will result in the transformation of the CFC or HCFC either at or outside of the production facility. Producing a fluorinated gas does not include the reuse or recycling of a fluorinated gas, the creation of HFC-23 during the production of HCFC-22, the creation of intermediates that are created and transformed in a single process with no storage of the intermediates, or the creation of fluorinated GHGs that are released or destroyed at the production facility before the production measurement in §98.414(a).
§98.140 Definition of the source category.
(a) A glass manufacturing facility manufactures flat glass, container glass, pressed and blown glass, or wool fiberglass by melting a mixture of raw materials to produce molten glass and form the molten glass into sheets, containers, fibers, or other shapes. A glass manufacturing facility uses one or more continuous glass melting furnaces to produce glass.
(b) A glass melting furnace that is an experimental furnace or a research and development process unit is not subject to this subpart.
§98.150 Definition of the source category.
The HCFC-22 production and HFC-23 destruction source category consists of HCFC-22 production processes and HFC-23 destruction processes.
(a) An HCFC-22 production process produces HCFC-22 (chlorodifluoromethane, or CHClF2) from chloroform (CHCl3) and hydrogen fluoride (HF).
(b) An HFC-23 destruction process is any process in which HFC-23 undergoes destruction. An HFC-23 destruction process may or may not be co-located with an HCFC-22 production process at the same facility.
§98.160 Definition of the source category.
(a) A hydrogen production source category consists of facilities that produce hydrogen gas sold as a product to other entities.
(b) This source category comprises process units that produce hydrogen by reforming, gasification, oxidation, reaction, or other transformations of feedstocks.
(c) This source category includes merchant hydrogen production facilities located within another facility if they are not owned by, or under the direct control of, the other facility’s owner and operator.
§98.170 Definition of the source category.
The iron and steel production source category includes facilities with any of the following processes: taconite iron ore processing, integrated iron and steel manufacturing, cokemaking not co-located with an integrated iron and steel manufacturing process, and electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking not co-located with an integrated iron and steel manufacturing process. Integrated iron and steel manufacturing means the production of steel from iron ore or iron ore pellets. At a minimum, an integrated iron and steel manufacturing process has a basic oxygen furnace for refining molten iron into steel. Each cokemaking process and EAF process located at a facility with an integrated iron and steel manufacturing process is part of the integrated iron and steel manufacturing facility.
§98.180 Definition of the source category.
The lead production source category consists of primary lead smelters and secondary lead smelters. A primary lead smelter is a facility engaged in the production of lead metal from lead sulfide ore concentrates through the use of pyrometallurgical techniques. A secondary lead smelter is a facility at which lead-bearing scrap materials (including but not limited to, lead-acid batteries) are recycled by smelting into elemental lead or lead alloys.
§98.190 Definition of the source category.
(a) Lime manufacturing plants (LMPs) engage in the manufacture of a lime product (e.g., calcium oxide, highcalcium quicklime, calcium hydroxide, hydrated lime, dolomitic quicklime, dolomitic hydrate, or other lime products) by calcination of limestone, dolomite, shells or other calcareous substances as defined in 40 CFR 63.7081(a)(1).
(b) This source category includes all LMPs unless the LMP is located at a kraft pulp mill, soda pulp mill, sulfite pulp mill, or only processes sludge containing calcium carbonate from water softening processes. The lime manufacturing source category consists of marketed and non-marketed lime manufacturing facilities.
(c) Lime kilns at pulp and paper manufacturing facilities must report emissions under subpart AA of this part (Pulp and Paper Manufacturing).
§98.200 Definition of source category.
The magnesium production and processing source category consists of the following processes:
(a) Any process in which magnesium metal is produced through smelting (including electrolytic smelting), refining, or remelting operations.
(b) Any process in which molten magnesium is used in alloying, casting, drawing, extruding, forming, or rolling operations.
§98.210 Definition of the source category.
(a) This source category includes any equipment that uses carbonates listed in Table U-1 in manufacturing processes that emit carbon dioxide. Table U-1 includes the following carbonates: limestone, dolomite, ankerite, magnesite, siderite, rhodochrosite, or sodium carbonate. Facilities are considered to emit CO2 if they consume at least 2,000 tons per year of carbonates heated to a temperature sufficient to allow the calcination reaction to occur.
(b) This source category does not include facilities that use carbonates or carbonate containing minerals that are consumed in the production of cement, glass, ferroalloys, iron and steel, lead, lime, phosphoric acid, pulp and paper, soda ash, sodium bicarbonate, sodium hydroxide, or zinc.
(c) This source category does not include carbonates used in sorbent technology used to control emissions from stationary fuel combustion equipment. Emissions from carbonates used in sorbent technology are reported under 40 CFR 98, subpart C (Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources).
§98.220 Definition of Source Category
A nitric acid production facility uses one or more trains to produce weak nitric acid (30 to 70 percent in strength). A nitric acid train produces weak nitric acid through the catalytic oxidation of ammonia.
§98.230 Definitions of the source categories for industry segments.
LNG storage means onshore LNG storage vessels located above ground, equipment for liquefying natural gas, compressors to capture and re-liquefy boil-off-gas, re-condensers, and vaporization units for re-gasification of the liquefied natural gas.
LNG import equipment means all onshore or offshore equipment that receives imported LNG via ocean transport, stores LNG, regasifies LNG, and delivers re-gasified natural gas to a natural gas transmission or distribution system. LNG export equipment means all onshore or offshore equipment that receives natural gas, liquefies natural gas, stores LNG, and transfers the LNG via ocean transportation to any location, including locations in the United States.
Natural gas distribution means the distribution pipelines (not interstate transmission pipelines or intrastate transmission pipelines) and metering and regulating equipment at city gate stations, and excluding customer meters, that physically deliver natural gas to end users and is operated by a Local Distribution Company (LDC) that is regulated as a separate operating company by a public utility commission or that is operated as an independent municipally-owned distribution system. This segment excludes customer meters and infrastructure and pipelines (both interstate and intrastate) delivering natural gas directly to major industrial users and "farm taps" upstream of the local distribution company inlet.
Offshore petroleum and natural gas production is any platform structure, affixed temporarily or permanently to offshore submerged lands, that houses equipment to extract hydrocarbons from the ocean or lake floor and that processes and/or transfers such hydrocarbons to storage, transport vessels, or onshore. In addition, offshore production includes secondary platform structures connected to the platform structure via walkways, storage tanks associated with the platform structure and floating production and storage offloading equipment (FPSO). This source category does not include reporting of emissions from offshore drilling and exploration that is not conducted on production platforms.
Natural gas processing separates and recovers natural gas liquids (NGLs) and/or other non-methane gases and liquids from a stream of produced natural gas using equipment performing one or more of the following processes: oil and condensate removal, water removal, separation of natural gas liquids, sulfur and carbon dioxide removal, fractionation of NGLs, or other processes, and also the capture of CO2 separated from natural gas streams. This segment also includes all residue gas compression equipment owned or operated by the natural gas processing facility, whether inside or outside the processing facility fence. This source category does not include reporting of emissions from gathering lines and boosting stations. This source category includes:
(i) All processing facilities that fractionate.
(ii) All processing facilities that do not fractionate with throughput of 25 MMscf per day or greater.
Onshore natural gas transmission compression means any stationary combination of compressors that move natural gas at elevated pressure from production fields or natural gas processing facilities in transmission pipelines to natural gas distribution pipelines or into storage. In addition, transmission compressor station may include equipment for liquids separation, natural gas dehydration, and tanks for the storage of water and hydrocarbon liquids. Residue (sales) gas compression operated by natural gas processing facilities are included in the onshore natural gas processing segment and are excluded from this segment. This source category also does not include reporting of emissions from gathering lines and boosting stations – these sources are currently not covered by subpart W.
Onshore natural gas transmission pipeline means all natural gas transmission pipelines as defined in §98.238. In §98.238, Transmission pipeline means a Federal Energy Regulatory Commission rate-regulated Interstate pipeline, a state rate-regulated Intrastate pipeline, or a pipeline that falls under the "Hinshaw Exemption" as referenced in section 1(c) of the Natural Gas Act, 15 U.S.C. 717-717 (w)(1994).
Onshore petroleum and natural gas gathering and boosting means gathering pipelines and other equipment used to collect petroleum and/or natural gas from onshore production gas or oil wells and used to compress, dehydrate, sweeten, or transport the petroleum and/or natural gas to a natural gas processing facility, a natural gas transmission pipeline or to a natural gas distribution pipeline. Gathering and boosting equipment includes, but is not limited to gathering pipelines, separators, compressors, acid gas removal units, dehydrators, pneumatic devices/pumps, storage vessels, engines, boilers, heaters, and flares. Gathering and boosting equipment does not include equipment reported under any other industry segment defined in this section. Gathering pipelines operating on a vacuum and gathering pipelines with a gas to oil ratio (GOR) less than 300 standard cubic feet per stock tank barrel (scf/STB) are not included in this industry segment (oil here refers to hydrocarbon liquids of all API gravities).
Onshore petroleum and natural gas production means all equipment on a well pad or associated with a well pad (including compressors, generators, or storage facilities), and portable non-self-propelled equipment on a well pad or associated with a well pad (including well drilling and completion equipment, workover equipment, gravity separation equipment, auxiliary non-transportation-related equipment, and leased, rented or contracted equipment) used in the production, extraction, recovery, lifting, stabilization, separation or treating of petroleum and/or natural gas (including condensate). This equipment also includes associated storage or measurement vessels and all enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations using CO2, and all petroleum and natural gas production located on islands, artificial islands, or structures connected by a causeway to land, an island, or artificial island.
Underground natural gas storage means subsurface storage, including depleted gas or oil reservoirs and salt dome caverns that store natural gas that has been transferred from its original location for the primary purpose of load balancing (the process of equalizing the receipt and delivery of natural gas); natural gas underground storage processes and operations (including compression, dehydration and flow measurement, and excluding transmission pipelines); and all the wellheads connected to the compression units located at the facility that inject and recover natural gas into and from the underground reservoirs.
§98.240 Definition of the source category.
(a) The petrochemical production source category consists of all processes that produce acrylonitrile, carbon black, ethylene, ethylene dichloride, ethylene oxide, or methanol, except as specified in paragraphs (b) through (g) of this section. The source category includes processes that produce the petrochemical as an intermediate in the on-site production of other chemicals as well as processes that produce the petrochemical as an end product for sale or shipment off site.
(b) A process that produces a petrochemical as a byproduct is not part of the petrochemical production source category.
(c) A facility that makes methanol, hydrogen, and/or ammonia from synthesis gas is part of the petrochemical source category if the annual mass of methanol produced exceeds the individual annual mass production levels of both hydrogen recovered as product and ammonia. The facility is part of subpart P of this part (Hydrogen Production) if the annual mass of hydrogen recovered as product exceeds the individual annual mass production levels of both methanol and ammonia. The facility is part of subpart G of this part (Ammonia Manufacturing) if the annual mass of ammonia produced exceeds the individual annual mass production levels of both hydrogen recovered as product and methanol.
(d) A direct chlorination process that is operated independently of an oxychlorination process to produce ethylene dichloride is not part of the petrochemical production source category.
(e) A process that produces bone black is not part of the petrochemical source category.
(f) A process that produces a petrochemical from bio-based feedstock is not part of the petrochemical production source category.
(g) A process that solely distills or recycles waste solvent that contains a petrochemical is not part of the petrochemical production source category.
§98.250 Definition of Source Category
(a) A petroleum refinery is any facility engaged in producing gasoline, gasoline blending stocks, naphtha, kerosene, distillate fuel oils, residual fuel oils, lubricants, or asphalt (bitumen) through distillation of petroleum or through redistillation, cracking, or reforming of unfinished petroleum derivatives, except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section.
(b) For the purposes of this subpart, facilities that distill only pipeline transmix (off-spec material created when different specification products mix during pipeline transportation) are not petroleum refineries, regardless of the products produced.
(c) This source category consists of the following sources at petroleum refineries: catalytic cracking units; fluid coking units; delayed coking units; catalytic reforming units; coke calcining units; asphalt blowing operations; blowdown systems; storage tanks; process equipment components (compressors, pumps, valves, pressure relief devices, flanges, and connectors) in gas service; marine vessel, barge, tanker truck, and similar loading operations; flares; sulfur recovery plants; and non-merchant hydrogen plants (i.e., hydrogen plants that are owned or under the direct control of the refinery owner and operator).
§98.260 Definition of the source category.
The phosphoric acid production source category consists of facilities with a wet-process phosphoric acid process line used to produce phosphoric acid. A wet-process phosphoric acid process line is the production unit or units identified by an individual identification number in an operating permit and/or any process unit or group of process units at a facility reacting phosphate rock from a common supply source with acid.
§98.270 Definition of Source Category
(a) The pulp and paper manufacturing source category consists of facilities that produce market pulp (i.e., stand-alone pulp facilities), manufacture pulp and paper (i.e., integrated facilities), produce paper products from purchased pulp, produce secondary fiber from recycled paper, convert paper into paperboard products (e.g., containers), or operate coating and laminating processes.
(b) The emission units for which GHG emissions must be reported are listed in paragraphs (b)(1) through (b)(5) of this section:
(1) Chemical recovery furnaces at kraft and soda mills (including recovery furnaces that burn spent pulping liquor produced by both the kraft and semichemical process).
(2) Chemical recovery combustion units at sulfite facilities.
(3) Chemical recovery combustion units at stand-alone semichemical facilities.
(4) Pulp mill lime kilns at kraft and soda facilities.
(5) Systems for adding makeup chemicals (CaCO3, Na2CO3) in the chemical recovery areas of chemical pulp mills.
§98.280 Definition of the source category.
Silicon carbide production includes any process that produces silicon carbide for abrasive purposes.
§98.290 Definition of the source category.
A soda ash manufacturing facility is any facility with a manufacturing line that produces soda ash by either: calcining trona or sodium sesquicarbonate; or by using a liquid alkaline feedstock process. In the context of the soda ash manufacturing sector, "calcining" means the thermal/chemical conversion of the bicarbonate fraction of the feedstock to sodium carbonate.
§98.300 Definition of the source category.
(a) The electrical transmission and distribution equipment use source category consists of all electric transmission and distribution equipment and servicing inventory insulated with or containing sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) or perfluorocarbons (PFCs) used within an electric power system. Electric transmission and distribution equipment and servicing inventory includes, but is not limited to:
(1) Gas-insulated substations.
(2) Circuit breakers.
(3) Switchgear, including closed-pressure and hermetically sealed-pressure switchgear and gas-insulated lines containing SF6 or PFCs.
(4) Gas containers such as pressurized cylinders.
(5) Gas carts.
(6) Electric power transformers.
(7) Other containers of SF6 or PFC.
§98.310 Definition of the source category.
The titanium dioxide production source category consists of facilities that use the chloride process to produce titanium dioxide.
§98.320 Definition of the source category.
(a) This source category consists of active underground coal mines, and any underground mines under development that have operational pre-mining degasification systems. An underground coal mine is a mine at which coal is produced by tunneling into the earth to the coalbed, which is then mined with underground mining equipment such as cutting machines and continuous, longwall, and shortwall mining machines, and transported to the surface. Underground coal mines are categorized as active if any one of the following five conditions apply:
(1) Mine development is underway.
(2) Coal has been produced within the last 90 days.
(3) Mine personnel are present in the mine workings.
(4) Mine ventilation fans are operative.
(5) The mine is designated as an "intermittent" mine by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA).
(b) This source category includes the following:
(1) Each ventilation well or shaft, including both those wells and shafts where gas is emitted and those where gas is sold, used onsite, or otherwise destroyed (including by flaring).
(2) Each degasification system well or shaft, including degasification systems deployed before, during, or after mining operations are conducted in a mine area. This includes both those wells and shafts where gas is emitted, and those where gas is sold, used onsite, or otherwise destroyed (including by flaring).
(c) This source category does not include abandoned or closed mines, surface coal mines, or post-coal mining activities (e.g., storage or transportation of coal).
§98.330 Definition of the source category.
The zinc production source category consists of zinc smelters and secondary zinc recycling facilities.
§98.340 Definition of the source category.
(a) This source category applies to municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills that accepted waste on or after January 1, 1980.
(b) This source category does not include Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle C or Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) hazardous waste landfills, construction and demolition waste landfills, or industrial waste landfills.
(c) This source category consists of the following sources at municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills: landfills, landfill gas collection systems, and landfill gas destruction devices (including flares).
§98.350 Definition of Source Category
(a) This source category consists of anaerobic processes used to treat industrial wastewater and industrial wastewater treatment sludge at facilities that perform the operations listed in this paragraph.
(1) Pulp and paper manufacturing.
(2) Food processing.
(3) Ethanol production.
(4) Petroleum refining.
(b) An anaerobic process is a procedure in which organic matter in wastewater, wastewater treatment sludge, or other material is degraded by micro organisms in the absence of oxygen, resulting in the generation of CO2 and CH4. This source category consists of the following: anaerobic reactors, anaerobic lagoons, anaerobic sludge digesters, and biogas destruction devices (for example, burners, boilers, turbines, flares, or other devices).
(1) An anaerobic reactor is an enclosed vessel used for anaerobic wastewater treatment (e.g., upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, fixed film).
(2) An anaerobic sludge digester is an enclosed vessel in which wastewater treatment sludge is degraded anaerobically.
(3) An anaerobic lagoon is a lined or unlined earthen basin used for wastewater treatment, in which oxygen is absent throughout the depth of the basin, except for a shallow surface zone. Anaerobic lagoons are not equipped with surface aerators. Anaerobic lagoons are classified as deep (depth more than 2 meters) or shallow (depth less than 2 meters).
(c) This source category does not include municipal wastewater treatment plants or separate treatment of sanitary wastewater at industrial sites.
§98.360 Definition of the source category.
(a) This source category consists of livestock facilities with manure management systems that emit 25,000 metric tons CO2e or more per year.
(1) Table JJ-1 presents the minimum average annual animal population by animal group that is estimated to emit 25,000 metric tons CO2e or more per year. Facilities with an average annual animal population, as described in §98.363(a)(i) and (ii), below those listed in Table JJ-1 do not need to report under this rule. A facility with an annual animal population that exceeds those listed in Table JJ-1 should conduct a more thorough analysis to determine applicability.
(2) If a facility has more than one animal group present (e.g., swine and poultry), the facility must determine if they are required to report by calculating the combined animal group factor (CAGF) using equation JJ-1:
CAGF = Combined Animal Group Factor
AAAPAG,Facility = Average annual animal population at the facility, by animal group
APTL AG = Animal population threshold level, as specified in Table JJ-1 of this section
If the calculated CAGF for a facility is less than 1, the facility is not required to report under this rule. If the CAGF is equal to or greater than 1, the facility must use more detailed applicability tables and tools to determine if they are required to report under this rule.
(b) A manure management system (MMS) is a system that stabilizes and/or stores livestock manure, litter, or manure wastewater in one or more of the following system components: uncovered anaerobic lagoons, liquid/slurry systems with and without crust covers (including but not limited to ponds and tanks), storage pits, digesters, solid manure storage, dry lots (including feedlots), high-rise houses for poultry production (poultry without litter), poultry production with litter, deep bedding systems for cattle and swine, manure composting, and aerobic treatment.
(c) This source category does not include system components at a livestock facility that are unrelated to the stabilization and/or storage of manure such as daily spread or pasture/range/paddock systems or land application activities or any method of manure utilization that is not listed in §98.360 (b).
(d) This source category does not include manure management activites located off site from a livestock facility or off-site manure composting operations.
§98.430 Definition of the source category.
(a) The source category, importers and exporters of fluorinated GHGs contained in pre-charged equipment or closed-cell foams, consists of any entity that imports or exports pre-charged equipment that contains a fluorinated GHG, and any entity that imports or exports closed-cell foams that contain a fluorinated GHG.
§98.440 Definition of the source category
(a) The geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) source category comprises any well or group of wells that inject a CO2 stream for long-term containment in subsurface geologic formations.
(b) This source category includes all wells permitted as Class VI under the Underground Injection Control program.
(c) This source category does not include a well or group of wells where a CO2 stream is being injected in subsurface geologic formations to enhance the recovery of oil or natural gas unless one of the following applies:
(1) The owner or operator injects the CO2 stream for long-term containment in subsurface geologic formations and has chosen to submit a proposed monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) plan to EPA and received an approved plan from EPA.
(2) The well is permitted as Class VI under the Underground Injection Control program.
(d) Exemption for research and development projects. Research and development projects shall receive an exemption from reporting under this subpart for the duration of the research and development activity.
§98.450 Definition of the source category.
The electrical equipment manufacturing or refurbishment category consists of processes that manufacture or refurbish gas-insulated substations, circuit breakers, other switchgear, gas-insulated lines, or power transformers (including gas-containing components of such equipment) containing sulfur-hexafluoride (SF6) or perfluorocarbons (PFCs). The processes include equipment testing, installation, manufacturing, decommissioning and disposal, refurbishing, and storage in gas cylinders and other containers.
§98.460 Definition of the source category.
(a) This source category applies to industrial waste landfills that accepted waste on or after January 1, 1980, and that are located at a facility whose total landfill design capacity is greater than or equal to 300,000 metric tons.
(b) An industrial waste landfill is a landfill other than a municipal solid waste landfill, a RCRA Subtitle C hazardous waste landfill, or a TSCA hazardous waste landfill, in which industrial solid waste, such as RCRA Subtitle D wastes (non-hazardous industrial solid waste, defined in 40 CFR 257.2), commercial solid wastes, or conditionally exempt small quantity generator wastes, is placed. An industrial waste landfill includes all disposal areas at the facility.
(c) This source category does not include:
(1) Dedicated construction and demolition waste landfills. A dedicated construction and demolition waste landfill receives materials generated from the construction or destruction of structures such as buildings, roads, and bridges.
(2) Industrial waste landfills that only receive one or more of the following inert waste materials:
(i) Coal combustion residue (e.g., fly ash).
(ii) Cement kiln dust.
(iii) Rocks and/or soil from excavation and construction and similar activities.
(v) Non-chemically bound sand (e.g., green foundry sand).
(vii) Clay, gypsum, or pottery cull.
(viii) Bricks, mortar, or cement.
(ix) Furnace slag.
(x) Materials used as refractory (e.g., alumina, silicon, fire clay, fire brick).
(xi) Plastics (e.g., polyethylene, polypropylene, polyethylene terephthalate, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride).
(xii) Other waste material that has a volatile solids concentration of 0.5 weight percent (on a dry basis) or less.
(d) This source category consists of the following sources at industrial waste landfills: landfills, gas collection systems at landfills, and destruction devices for landfill gases (including flares).
§98.470 Definition of the source category.
(a) The injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) source category comprises any well or group of wells that inject a CO2 stream into the subsurface.
(b) If you report under subpart RR of this part for a well or group of wells, you are not required to report under this subpart for that well or group of wells.
(c) A facility that is subject to this part only because it is subject to subpart UU of this part is not required to report emissions under subpart C of this part or any other subpart listed in §98.2(a)(1) or (a)(2).
Agricultural by-products means those parts of arable crops that are not used for the primary purpose of producing food. Agricultural by-products include, but are not limited to, oat, corn and wheat straws, bagasse, peanut shells, rice and coconut husks, soybean hulls, palm kernel cake, cottonseed and sunflower seed cake, and pomace.
Asphalt means a dark brown-to-black cement-like material obtained by petroleum processing and containing bitumens as the predominant component. It includes crude asphalt as well as the following finished products: cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates blended with asphalt to make cutback asphalts.
Aviation Gasoline means a complex mixture of volatile hydrocarbons, with or without additives, suitably blended to be used in aviation reciprocating engines. Specifications can be found in ASTM Specification D910–07a, Standard Specification for Aviation Gasolines (incorporated by reference, see §98.7).
Biodiesel means a mono-akyl ester derived from biomass and conforming to ASTM D6751-08, Standard Specification for Biodiesel Fuel Blend Stock (B100) for Middle Distillate Fuels.
Biomass means non-fossilized and biodegradable organic material originating from plants, animals and/or micro-organisms, including products, by-products, residues and waste from agriculture, forestry and related industries as well as the non-fossilized and biodegradable organic fractions of industrial and municipal wastes, including gases and liquids recovered from the decomposition of non-fossilized and biodegradable organic material.
Butane, or n-Butane, is a paraffinic straight-chain hydrocarbon with molecular formula C4H10.
Butylene, or n-Butylene, is an olefinic straight-chain hydrocarbon with molecular formula C4H8.
Carbon dioxide equivalent or CO2e means the number of metric tons of CO2 emissions with the same global warming potential as one metric ton of another greenhouse gas, and is calculated using Equation A-1 in 40 CFR Part 98.
Company records means, in reference to the amount of fuel consumed by a stationary combustion unit (or by a group of such units), a complete record of the methods used, the measurements made, and the calculations performed to quantify fuel usage. Company records may include, but are not limited to, direct measurements of fuel consumption by gravimetric or volumetric means, tank drop measurements, and calculated values of fuel usage obtained by measuring auxiliary parameters such as steam generation or unit operating hours. Fuel billing records obtained from the fuel supplier qualify as company records.
Crude oil means a mixture of hydrocarbons that exists in liquid phase in natural underground reservoirs and remains liquid at atmospheric pressure after passing through surface separating facilities.
(1) Depending upon the characteristics of the crude stream, it may also include any of the following:
(i) Small amounts of hydrocarbons that exist in gaseous phase in natural underground reservoirs but are liquid at atmospheric conditions (temperature and pressure) after being recovered from oil well (casing-head) gas in lease separators and are subsequently commingled with the crude stream without being separately measured. Lease condensate recovered as a liquid from natural gas wells in lease or field separation facilities and later mixed into the crude stream is also included.
(ii) Small amounts of nonhydrocarbons, such as sulfur and various metals.
(iii) Drip gases, and liquid hydrocarbons produced from tar sands, oil sands, gilsonite, and oil shale.
(iv) Petroleum products that are received or produced at a refinery and subsequently injected into a crude supply or reservoir by the same refinery owner or operator.
(2) Liquids produced at natural gas processing plants are excluded. Crude oil is refined to produce a wide array of petroleum products, including heating oils; gasoline, diesel and jet fuels; lubricants; asphalt; ethane, propane, and butane; and many other products used for their energy or chemical content.
Distillate Fuel No. 1 has a maximum distillation temperature of 550 °F at the 90 percent recovery point and a minimum flash point of 100 °F and includes fuels commonly known as Diesel Fuel No. 1 and Fuel Oil No. 1, but excludes kerosene. This fuel is further subdivided into categories of sulfur content: High Sulfur (greater than 500 ppm), Low Sulfur (less than or equal to 500 ppm and greater than 15 ppm), and Ultra Low Sulfur (less than or equal to 15 ppm).
Distillate Fuel No. 2 has a minimum and maximum distillation temperature of 540 °F and 640 °F at the 90 percent recovery point, respectively, and includes fuels commonly known as Diesel Fuel No. 2 and Fuel Oil No. 2. This fuel is further subdivided into categories of sulfur content: High Sulfur (greater than 500 ppm), Low Sulfur (less than or equal to 500 ppm and greater than 15 ppm), and Ultra Low Sulfur (less than or equal to 15 ppm).
Distillate Fuel No. 4 is a distillate fuel oil made by blending distillate fuel oil and residual fuel oil, with a minimum flash point of 131 °F.
Emergency equipment means any auxiliary fossil fuel-powered equipment, such as a fire pump, that is used only in emergency situations.
Emergency generator means a stationary combustion device, such as a reciprocating internal combustion engine or turbine that serves solely as a secondary source of mechanical or electrical power whenever the primary energy supply is disrupted or discontinued during power outages or natural disasters that are beyond the control of the owner or operator of a facility. An emergency generator operates only during emergency situations, for training of personnel under simulated emergency conditions, as part of emergency demand response procedures, or for standard performance testing procedures as required by law or by the generator manufacturer. A generator that serves as a back-up power source under conditions of load shedding, peak shaving, power interruptions pursuant to an interruptible power service agreement, or scheduled facility maintenance shall not be considered an emergency generator.
Ethane is a paraffinic hydrocarbon with molecular formula C2H6.
Ethanol is an anhydrous alcohol with molecular formula C2H5OH.
Ethylene is an olefinic hydrocarbon with molecular formula C2H4.
Any physical property, plant, building, structure, source, or stationary equipment located on one or more contiguous or adjacent properties in actual physical contact or separated solely by a public roadway or other public right-of-way and under common ownership or common control, that emits or may emit any greenhouse gas. Operators of military installations may classify such installations as more than a single facility based on distinct and independent functional groupings within contiguous military properties.
Flare means a combustion device, whether at ground level or elevated, that uses an open flame to burn combustible gases with combustion air provided by uncontrolled ambient air around the flame.
Fuel gas means gas generated at a petroleum refinery or petrochemical plant and that is combusted separately or in any combination with any type of gas.
Methane generation is the amount of methane created from decomposition of waste in the landfill and can be calculated using the equations in 40 CFR 98.343(a). Methane generation is greater than the amount actually released to the atmosphere (emitted) because generation does not account for soil oxidation or gas collection and control.
Hazardous waste as defined in 40 CFR 261.3.
Heavy Gas Oils are petroleum distillates with an approximate boiling range from 651 °F to 1,000 °F.
Isobutane is a paraffinic branch chain hydrocarbon with molecular formula C4H10.
Isobutylene is an olefinic branch chain hydrocarbon with molecular formula C4H8.
Kerosene is a light petroleum distillate with a maximum distillation temperature of 400 °F at the 10-percent recovery point, a final maximum boiling point of 572 °F, a minimum flash point of 100 °F, and a maximum freezing point of -22 °F. Included are No. 1-K and No. 2-K, distinguished by maximum sulfur content (0.04 and 0.30 percent of total mass, respectively), as well as all other grades of kerosene called range or stove oil. Excluded is kerosene-type jet fuel.
Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel means a kerosene-based product used in commercial and military turbojet and turboprop aircraft. The product has a maximum distillation temperature of 400 °F at the 10 percent recovery point and a final maximum boiling point of 572 °F. Included are Jet A, Jet A-1, JP-5, and JP-8.
Lubricants include all grades of lubricating oils, from spindle oil to cylinder oil to those used in greases. Petroleum lubricants may be produced from distillates or residues.
Motor gasoline (finished) means a complex mixture of volatile hydrocarbons, with or without additives, suitably blended to be used in spark ignition engines. Motor gasoline includes conventional gasoline, reformulated gasoline, and all types of oxygenated gasoline. Gasoline also has seasonal variations in an effort to control ozone levels. This is achieved by lowering the Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) of gasoline during the summer driving season. Depending on the region of the country the RVP is lowered to below 9.0 psi or 7.8 psi. The RVP may be further lowered by state regulations.
Municipal solid waste or MSW means solid phase household, commercial/retail, and/or institutional waste. Household waste includes material discarded by single and multiple residential dwellings, hotels, motels, and other similar permanent or temporary housing establishments or facilities. Commercial/retail waste includes material discarded by stores, offices, restaurants, warehouses, nonmanufacturing activities at industrial facilities, and other similar establishments or facilities. Institutional waste includes material discarded by schools, nonmedical waste discarded by hospitals, material discarded by nonmanufacturing activities at prisons and government facilities, and material discarded by other similar establishments or facilities. Household, commercial/retail, and institutional wastes include yard waste, refuse-derived fuel, and motor vehicle maintenance materials. Insofar as there is separate collection, processing and disposal of industrial source waste streams consisting of used oil, wood pallets, construction, renovation, and demolition wastes (which includes, but is not limited to, railroad ties and telephone poles), paper, clean wood, plastics, industrial process or manufacturing wastes, medical waste, motor vehicle parts or vehicle fluff, or used tires that do not contain hazardous waste identified or listed under 42 U.S.C. §6921, such wastes are not municipal solid waste. However, such wastes qualify as municipal solid waste where they are collected with other municipal solid waste or are otherwise combined with other municipal solid waste for processing and/or disposal.
Naphthas (< 401 °F) is a generic term applied to a petroleum fraction with an approximate boiling range between 122 °F and 400 °F. The naphtha fraction of crude oil is the raw material for gasoline and is composed largely of paraffinic hydrocarbons.
Natural gas means a naturally occurring mixture of hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon gases found in geologic formations beneath the earth's surface, of which the principal constituent is methane. Natural gas may be field quality or pipeline quality.
Natural gasoline means a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons (mostly pentanes and heavier hydrocarbons) extracted from natural gas. It includes isopentane.
Other Oils (> 401 °F) are oils with a boiling range equal to or greater than 401 °F that are generally intended for use as a petrochemical feedstock and are not defined elsewhere.
Outer Continental Shelf means all submerged lands lying seaward and outside of the area of lands beneath navigable waters as defined in 43 U.S.C §1331, and of which the subsoil and seabed appertain to the United States and are subject to its jurisdiction and control.
Pentanes Plus, or C5+, is a mixture of hydrocarbons that is a liquid at ambient temperature and pressure, and consists mostly of pentanes (five carbon chain) and higher carbon number hydrocarbons. Pentanes plus includes, but is not limited to, normal pentane, isopentane, hexanes-plus (natural gasoline), and plant condensate.
Petrochemical Feedstocks means feedstocks derived from petroleum for the manufacture of chemicals, synthetic rubber, and a variety of plastics. This category is usually divided into naphthas less than 401 °F and other oils greater than 401 °F.
Petroleum coke means a black solid residue, obtained mainly by cracking and carbonizing of petroleum derived feedstocks, vacuum bottoms, tar and pitches in processes such as delayed coking or fluid coking. It consists mainly of carbon (90 to 95 percent), has low ash content, and may be used as a feedstock in coke ovens. This product is also known as marketable coke or catalyst coke.
Portable means designed and capable of being carried or moved from one location to another. Indications of portability include but are not limited to wheels, skids, carrying handles, dolly, trailer, or platform. Equipment is not portable if any one of the following conditions exists:
Propane is a paraffinic hydrocarbon with molecular formula C3H8.
Propylene is an olefinic hydrocarbon with molecular formula C3H6.
Rendered animal fat, or tallow, means fats extracted from animals which are generally used as a feedstock in making biodiesel.
Residual Fuel Oil No. 5 (Navy Special) is a classification for the heavier fuel oil generally used in steam powered vessels in government service and inshore power plants. It has a minimum flash point of 131 °F.
Residual Fuel Oil No. 6 (a.k.a. Bunker C) is a classification for the heavier fuel oil generally used for the production of electric power, space heating, vessel bunkering and various industrial purposes. It has a minimum flash point of 140 °F.
Road Oil is any heavy petroleum oil, including residual asphaltic oil used as a dust palliative and surface treatment on roads and highways. It is generally produced in six grades, from 0, the most liquid, to 5, the most viscous.
Solid by-products means plant matter such as vegetable waste, animal materials/wastes, and other solid biomass, except for wood, wood waste, and sulphite lyes (black liquor).
Special naphthas means all finished products with the naphtha boiling range (290° to 470 °F) that are generally used as paint thinners, cleaners or solvents. These products are refined to a specified flash point. Special naphthas include all commercial hexane and cleaning solvents conforming to ASTM Specification D1836-07, Standard Specification for Commercial Hexanes, and D235-02 (Reapproved 2007), Standard Specification for Mineral Spirits (Petroleum Spirits) (Hydrocarbon Dry Cleaning Solvent), respectively. Naphthas to be blended or marketed as motor gasoline or aviation gasoline, or that are to be used as petrochemical and synthetic natural gas (SNG) feedstocks are excluded.
Unfinished oils are all oils requiring further processing, except those requiring only mechanical blending.
United States means the 50 States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and any other Commonwealth, territory or possession of the United States, as well as the territorial sea as defined by Presidential Proclamation No. 5928.
Used oil means a petroleum-derived or syntheticallyderived oil whose physical properties have changed as a result of handling or use, such that the oil cannot be used for its original purpose. Used oil consists primarily of automotive oils (e.g., used motor oil, transmission oil, hydraulic fluids, brake fluid, etc.) and industrial oils (e.g., industrial engine oils, metalworking oils, process oils, industrial grease, etc.).
Vegetable oil means oils extracted from vegetation that are generally used as a feedstock in making biodiesel.
Wood residuals means materials recovered from three principal sources: municipal solid waste (MSW); construction and demolition debris; and primary timber processing. Wood residuals recovered from MSW include wooden furniture, cabinets, pallets and containers, scrap lumber (from sources other than construction and demolition activities), and urban tree and landscape residues. Wood residuals from construction and demolition debris originate from the construction, repair, remodeling and demolition of houses and non-residential structures. Wood residuals from primary timber processing include bark, sawmill slabs and edgings, sawdust, and peeler log cores. Other sources of wood residuals include, but are not limited to, railroad ties, telephone and utility poles, pier and dock timbers, wastewater process sludge from paper mills, trim, sander dust, and sawdust from wood products manufacturing (including resinated wood product residuals), and logging residues.