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Fuel Economy

Regulations and Standards

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On this page you will find links to regulations and standards related to fuel economy of motor vehicles.

Fuel Economy Test Methods

The city and highway miles per gallon estimates help consumers compare the fuel economy of different vehicles when shopping for new cars. Although no single test can ever account for the wide variety of conditions experienced by every driver, the test methods for the window sticker values were updated starting with model year 2008 vehicles to more accurately reflect today's driving conditions. These test methods will continue to be used to determine values for the new Fuel Economy and Environment Label.

Related Actions

EPA Fuel Economy Regulations
EPA's regulations giving instructions on how to test vehicles, measure, calculate and report fuel economy information for CAFE, labeling and Gas Guzzler Tax determination are found in the Code of Federal Regulations, 40 CFR Part 600 -- Fuel Economy of Motor Vehicles.

  • Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards

    • Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) requires vehicle manufacturers to comply with the gas mileage, or fuel economy, standards set by the Department of Transportation (DOT). CAFE values are obtained using  the city and highway fuel economy test results and a weighted average of vehicle sales. Tests are conducted in a laboratory by operating vehicles on a dynamometer. EPA administers the testing program that generates the fuel economy data. The National Highway Traffic and Safety Administration (NHTSA), part of DOT, is authorized to assess penalties based on the information EPA supplies and to modify the standards.

    • MPG: Label Values vs. Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Values (PDF) (1 pg, 76K, EPA-420-B-14-015, March 2014, About PDF)

  • The Gas Guzzler Tax is imposed on manufacturers of new cars (not minivans, sport utility vehicles or pick-up trucks) that do not meet required fuel economy levels, to discourage the production and purchase of fuel-inefficient vehicles. The tax is collected by the Internal Revenue Service and paid by the manufacturer. The amount of the tax is displayed on the vehicle’s fuel economy label (the window sticker on new cars).

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