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CADDIS Volume 2: Sources, Stressors & Responses

References for the Urbanization Module

Alberti M, Booth D, Hill K, Coburn B, Avolio C, Coe S, Spirandelli D (2007) The impact of urban patterns on aquatic ecosystems: An empirical analysis in Puget lowland sub-basins. Landscape and Urban Planning 80:345-361.

Alig RJ, Kline JD, Lichtenstein M (2004) Urbanization on the US landscape: looking ahead in the 21st century. Landscape and Urban Planning 69(2-3):219-234.

Allan JD (1995) Stream Ecology: Structure and Function of Running Waters. Chapman & Hall, London UK.

Allan JD (2004) Landscapes and riverscapes: the influence of land use on stream ecosystems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 35:257-284.

Alley WM, Veenhuis JE (1983) Effective impervious area in urban runoff modeling. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering 109(2):313-319.

Allmendinger NE, Pizzuto JE, Moglen GE, Lewicki M (2007) A sediment budget for an urbanizing watershed, 1951-1996, Montgomery County, Maryland, U.S.A. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 43:1483-1498.

Andersen CB, Lewis GP, Sargent KA (2004) Influence of wastewater-treatment effluent on concentrations and fluxes of solutes in the Bush River, South Carolina, during extreme drought conditions. Environmental Geosciences 11(1):28-41.

Arnold CL, Gibbons CJ (1996) Impervious surface coverage - the emergence of a key environmental indicator. Journal of the American Planning Association 62(2):243-258.

Baker LA (2009) New concepts for managing urban pollution. Pp. 69-91 in: Baker LA (Eds). The Water Environment of Cities. Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Barber LB, Murphy SF, Verplanck PL, Sandstrom MW, Taylor HE, Furlong ET (2006) Chemical loading into surface water along a hydrological, biogeochemical, and land use gradient: A holistic watershed approach. Environmental Science & Technology 40:475-486.

Benton PD, Ensign WE, Freeman BJ (2008) The effect of road crossings on fish movements in small Etowah Basin streams. Southeastern Naturalist 7(2):301-310.

Bilby RE, Mollot LA (2008) Effect of changing land use patterns on the distribution of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in the Puget Sound region. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 65(10):2138-2148.

Blakely TJ, Harding JS, McIntosh AR, Winterbourn MJ (2006) Barriers to the recovery of aquatic insect communities in urban streams. Freshwater Biology 51:1634-1645.

Bledsoe BP, Watson CC (2001) Effects of urbanization on channel instability. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 37(2):255-270.

Booth DB, Jackson CR (1997) Urbanization of aquatic systems: Degradation thresholds, stormwater detection, and the limits of mitigation. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 33(5):1077-1090.

Booth DB, Karr JR, Schauman S, Konrad CP, Morley SA, Larson MG, Burger SJ (2004) Reviving urban streams: Land use, hydrology, biology, and human behavior. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 40(5):1351-1364.

Borchardt D, Statzner B (1990) Ecological impact of urban stormwater runoff studied in experimental flumes - population loss by drift and availability of refugial space. Aquatic Sciences 52(4):299-314.

Brandes D, Cavallo GJ, Nilson ML (2005) Base flow trends in urbanizing watersheds of the Delaware River Basin. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 41(6):1377-1391.

Brown LR, Cuffney TF, Coles JF, Fitzpatrick F, McMahon G, Steuer J, Bell AH, May JT (2009) Urban streams across the USA: lessons learned from studies in 9 metropolitan areas. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 28(4):1051-1069.

Burns D, Vitar T, McDonnell J, Hassett J, Duncan J, Kedall C (2005) Effects of suburban development on runoff generation in the Croton River basin, New York, USA. Journal of Hydrobiology 311:266-281.

Busse LB, Simpson JC, Cooper SD (2006) Relationships among nutrients algae and land use in urbanized southern California streams. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 63(12):2621-2638.

Carey RO, Migliaccio KW (2009) Contribution of wastewater treatment plant effluents to nutrient dynamics in aquatic systems: a review. Environmental Management 44(2):205-217.

Carlisle DM, Falcone J, Meador MR (2009) Predicting the biological condition of streams: Use of geospatial indicators of natural and anthropogenic characteristics of watersheds. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 151:143-160.

Carroll GD, Jackson CR (2008) Observed relationships between urbanization and riparian cover, shredder abundance, and stream leaf litter standing crops. Fundamental and Applied Limnology 173(3):213-225.

Chadwick MA, Dobberfuhl DR, Benke AC, Huryn AD, Suberkropp K, Thiele JE (2006) Urbanization affects stream ecosystem function by alterin hydrology, chemistry, and biotic richness. Ecological Applications 16(5):1796-1807.

Chalmers AT, Van Metre PC, Callender E (2006) The chemical response of particle-associated contaminants in aquatic sediments to urbanization in new England, USA. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 91:4-25.

Chang HJ (2007) Comparative streamflow characteristics in urbanizing basins in the Portland Metropolitan Area, Oregon, USA. Hydrological Processes 21:211-222.

Changnon SA, Demissie M (1996) Detection of changes in streamflow and floods resulting from climate fluctuations and land use-drainage changes. Climatic Change 32(4):411-421.

Chin A (2006) Urban transformation of river landscapes in a global context. Geomorphology 79:460-487.

Cianfrani CM, Hession WC, Rizzo DM (2006) Watershed imperviousness impacts on stream channel condition in southeastern Pennsylvania. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 42(4):941-956.

Colosimo MF, Wilcock PR (2007) Alluvial sedimentation and erosion in an urbanizing watershed, Gwynns Falls, Maryland. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 43(2):499-521.

DeGasperi CL, Berge HB, Whiting KR, Burkey JJ, Cassin JL, Fuerstenberg RR (2009) Linking hydrologic alteration to biological impairment in urbanizing streams of the Puget Lowland, Washington, USA. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 45(2):512-533.

Elmore AJ, Kaushal SS (2008) Disappearing headwaters: patterns of stream burial due to urbanization. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 6(6):308-312.

Faulkner H, Edmonds-Brown V, Green A (2000) Problems of quality designation in diffusely polluted urban streams - the case of Pymme's Brook, North London. Environmental Pollution 109(1):91-107.

Finkenbine JK, Atwater JW, Mavinic DS (2000) Stream health after urbanization. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 36(5):1149-1160.

Franczyk J, Chang H (2009) The effects of climate change and urbanization on the runoff of the Rock Creek basin in the Portland metropolitan area, Oregon, USA. Hydrological Processes 23(6):805-815.

Freeman MC, Marcinek PA (2006) Fish assemblage responses to water withdrawals and water supply reservoirs in piedmont streams. Environmental Management 38(3):435-450.

Frenzel SA, Couvillion CS (2002) Fecal-indicator bacteria in streams along a gradient of residential development. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 33(1):265-273.

Gibson CJ, Stadterman KL, States S, Sykora J (1998) Combined sewer overflows: a source of Cryptosporidium and Giardia?. Water Science and Technology 38(12):67-72.

Gooseff MN, Hall RO, Tank JL (2007) Relating transient storage to channel complexity in streams of varying land use in Jackson Hole, Wyoming. Water Resouces Research 43(1):1-10.

Gregory KJ, Gurnell AM, Hill CT, Tooth S (1994) Stability of the pool-riffle sequence in changing river channels. Regulated Rivers: Research and Management 9:35-43.

Groffman PM, Bain DJ, Band LE, Belt KT, Brush GS, Grove JM, Pouyat RV, Yesilonis IC, Zipperer WC (2003) Down by the riverside: urban riparian ecology. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 1(6):315-321.

Groffman PM, Boulware NJ, Zipperer WC, Pouyat RV, Band LE, Colosimo MF (2002) Soil nitrogen cycle processes in urban riparian zones. Environmental Science & Technology 36(21):4547-4552.

Groffman PM, Law NL, Belt KT, Band LE, Fisher GT (2004) Nitrogen fluxes and retention in urban watershed ecosystems. Ecosystems 7:393-403.

G├╝cker B, Brauns M, Pusch MT (2006) Effects of wastewater treatment plant discharge on ecosystem structure and function of lowland streams. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 25(2):313-329.

Han HJ, Allan JD, Scavia D (2009) Influence of climate and human activities on the relationship between watershed nitrogen input and river export. Environmental Science & Technology 43(6):1916-1922.

Harbott EL, Grace MR (2005) Extracellular enzyme response to bioavailability of dissolved organic C in stream of varying catchment urbanization. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 24(3):588-601.

Hardison EC, O'Driscoll MA, DeLoatch JP, Howard RJ, Brinson MM (2009) Urban land use, channel incision, and water table decline along Coastal Plain streams, North Carolina. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 45(4):1032-1046.

Hatt BE, Fletcher TD, Walsh CJ, Taylor SL (2004) The influence of urban density and drainage infrastructure on the concentrations and loads of pollutants in small streams. Environmental Management 34(1):112-124.

Helms BS, Schoonover JE, Feminella JW (2009) Assessing influences of hydrology, physicochemistry, and habitat on stream fish assemblages across a changing landscape. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 45(1):157-169.

Herb WR, Janke B, Mohseni O, Stefan HG (2008) Thermal pollution of streams by runoff from paved surfaces. Hydrological Processes 22:987-999.

Hession WC, Pizzuto JE, Johnson TE, Horwitz RJ (2003) Influence of bank vegetation on channel morphology in rural and urban watersheds. Geology 31(2):147-150.

Hogg ID, Norris RH (1991) Effects of runoff from land clearing and urban development on the distribution and abundance of macroinvertebrates in pool areas of a river. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 42(5):507-518.

Horwitz FJ, Johnson TE, Overbeck PF, O'Donnell TK, Hession WC, Sweeney BW (2008) Effects of riparian vegetation and watershed urbanization on fishes in streams of the mid-Atlantic Piedmont (USA). Journal of the American Water Resources Association 44(3):724-741.

Hur J, Schlautman MA, Karanfil T, Smink J, Song H, Klaine SJ, Hayes JC (2007) Influence of drought and municipal sewage effluents on the baseflow water chemistry of an upper Piedmont river. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 132(1-3):171-187.

Imberger SJ, Walsh CJ, Grace MR (2008) More microbial activity, not abrasive flow or shredder abundance, accelerates breakdown of labile leaf litter in urban streams. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 27(3):549-561.

Jobling S, Tyler CR (2003) Endocrine disruption, parasites and pollutants in wild freshwater fish. Parasitology 126:S103-S108.

Jones RC, Clark CC (1987) Impact of watershed urbanization on stream insect communities. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 23(6):1047-1055.

Kaufmann PR, Larsen DP, Faustini JM (2009) Bed stability and sedimentation associated with human disturbances in Pacific Northwest streams. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 45(2):434-459.

Kaushal SS, Groffman PM, Band LE, Shields CA, Morgan RP, Palmer MA, Belt KT, Swan CM, Findlay SEG, Fisher GT (2008) Interaction between urbanization and climate variability amplifies watershed nitrate export in Maryland. Environmental Science & Technology 42:5872-5878.

Kaushal SS, Groffman PM, Likens GE, Belt KT, Stack WP, Kelly VR, Band LE, Fisher GT (2005) Increased salinization of fresh water in the northeastern United States. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 102:13517-13520.

Kemp SJ, Spotila JR (1997) Effects of urbanization on brown trout Salmo trutta, other fishes and macroinvertebrates in Valley Creek, Valley Forge, Pennsylvania. American Midland Naturalist 138(1):55-68.

Kennen JG (1999) Relation of macroinvertebrate community impairment to catchment characteristics in New Jersey streams. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 35(4):939-955.

King RS, Baker ME, Whigham DF, Weller DE, Jordan TE, Kazyak PF, Hurd MK (2005) Spatial considerations for linking watershed land cover to ecological indicators in streams. Ecological Applications 15(1):137-153.

Kinouchi T (2007) Impact of long-term water and energy consumption in Tokyo on wastewater effluent: implications for the thermal degradation of urban streams. Hydrological Processes 21(9):1207-1216.

Kinouchi T, Yagi H, Miyamoto M (2007) Increase in stream temperature related to anthropogenic heat input from urban wastewater. Journal of Hydrology 335(1-2):78-88.

Kolpin DW, Furlong ET, Meyer MT, Thurman EM, Zaugg SD, Barber LB, Buxton HT (2002) Pharmaceuticals, hormones, and other organic wastewater contaminants in U.S. streams, 1999-2000: a national reconnaissance. Environmental Science & Technology 36:1202-1211.

Lerner DN (2002) Identifying and quantifying urban recharge: a review. Hydrogeology Journal 10(1):143-152.

Mahler BJ Van Metre PC, Bashara TJ, Wilson JT, Johns DA (2005) Parking lot sealcoat: An unrecognized source of urban polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Environmental Science & Technology 39(15):5560-5566.

Maltby L, Boxall ABA, Forrow DM, Callow P, Betton CI (1995) The effects of motorway runoff on freshwater ecosystems: 2. Identifying major toxicants. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 14(6):1093-1101.

Meyer JL, Wallace JB (2001) Lost linkages and lotic ecology: rediscovering small streams. Pp. 295-317 In: Press MC, Huntly NJ, Levin S (Eds). Ecology: Achievement and Challenge. Blackwell Science, Oxford UK.

Meyer SC (2005) Analysis of base flow trends in urban streams, northeastern Illinois, USA. Hydrogeology Journal 13(5-6):871-885.

Miller W, Boulton A (2005) Managing and rehabilitating ecosystem processes in regional urban streams in Australia. Hydrobiologia 552(1):121-133.

Miltner RJ, White D, Yoder C (2004) The biotic integrity of stream in urban and suburbanizing landscapes. Landscape and Urban Planning 69:87-100.

Moore AA, Palmer MA (2005) Invertebrate biodiversity in agricultural and urban headwater streams: Implications for conservation and management. Ecological Applications 15(4):1169-1177.

Morgan RP, Cushman SF (2005) Urbanization effects on stream fish assemblages in Maryland, USA. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 24(3):643-655.

Morley SA, Karr JR (2002) Assessing and restoring the health of urban streams in the Puget Sound basin. Conservation Biology 16(6):1498-1509.

Nedeau EJ, Merritt RW, Kaufman MG (2003) The effect of an industrial effluent on an urban stream benthic community: water quality vs. habitat quality. Environmental Pollution 123(1):1-13.

Nelson KC, Palmer MA (2007) Stream temperature surges under urbanization and climate change: Data, models, and responses. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 43(2):440-452.

Nelson KC, Palmer MA, Pizzuto JE, Moglen GE, Angermeier PL, Hilderbrand RH, Dettinger M, Hayhoe K (2009) Forecasting the combined effects of urbanization and climate change on stream ecosystems: from impacts to management options. Journal of Applied Ecology 46:154-163.

Newall P, Walsh CJ (2005) Response of epilithic diatom assemblages to urbanization influences. Hydrobiologia 532:53-67.

Ometo JPHB, Martinelli LA, Ballester MV, Gessner A, Krusche AV, Victoria RL, Williams M (2000) Effects of land use on water chemistry and macroinvertebrates rates in two streams of the Piracicaba river basin, south-east Brazil. Freshwater Biology 44(2):327-337.

Ortiz JD, Puig MA (2007) Point source effects on density, biomass and diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates in a mediterranean stream. River Research and Applications 23(2):155-170.

Palmer MA, Lettenmaier DP, Poff NL, Postel SL, Richter B, Warner R (2009) Climate change and river ecosystems: protection and adaptation options. Environmental Management 44:1053-1068.

Paul MJ, Meyer JL (2001) Streams in the urban landscape. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 32:333-365.

Paul MJ, Meyer JL, Couch CA (2006) Leaf breakdown in stream differing in catchment land use. Freshwater Biology 51(9):1684-1695.

Pedersen ER, Perkins MA (1986) The use of benthic invertebrate data for evaluating impacts of urban runoff. Hydrobiologia 139:13-22.

Pennington DN, Hansel J, Blair RB (2008) The conservation value of urban riparian areas for landbirds during spring migration: Land cover, scale, and vegetation effects. Biological Conservation 141(5):1235-1248.

Phillips P, Chalmers A (2009) Wastewater effluent, combined sewer overflows, and other sources of organic compounds to Lake Champlain. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 45(1):45-57.

Pinkney AE, Harshbarger JC, May EB, Reichert WL (2004) Tumor prevalence and biomarkers of exposure and response in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) from the Anacostia River, Washington, DC and Tuckahoe River, Maryland, USA. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 23(3):638-647.

Pizzuto JE, Hession WC, McBride M (2000) Comparing gravel-bed rivers in paired urban and rural catchments of southeastern Pennsylvania. Geology 28(1):79-82.

Poff NL, Bledsoe BP, Cuhaciyan CO (2006) Hydrologic variation with land use across the contiguous United States: Geomorphic and ecological consquences for stream ecosystems. Geomorphology 79:264-285.

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Riley SPD, Busteed GT, Kats LB, Vandergon TL, Lee LFS, Dagit RG, Kerby JL, Fisher RN, Sauvajot RM (2005) Effects of urbanization on the distribution and abundance of amphibians and invasive species in southern California streams. Conservation Biology 19(6):1894-1907.

Roberts ML, Bilby RE (2009) Urbanization alters litterfall rates and nutrient inputs to small Puget Lowland streams. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 28(4):941-954.

Rose S (2007) The effects of urbanization on the hydrochemistry of base flow within the Chattahoochee River Basin (Georgia, USA). Journal of Hydrology 341(1-2):42-54.

Rose S, Peters NE (2001) Effects of urbanization on streamflow in the Atlanta area (Georgia, USA): a comparative hydrological approach. Hydrological Processes 15(8):1441-1457.

Roy AH, Dybas AL, Fritz KM, Lubbers HR (2009) Urbanization affects the extent and hydrologic permanence of headwater streams in a midwestern US metropolitan area. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 28(4):911-928.

Roy AH, Freeman BJ, Freeman MC (2007) Riparian influences on stream fish assemblage structure in urbanizing streams. Landscape Ecology 22:385-402.

Roy AH, Freeman MC, Freeman BJ, Wenger SJ, Ensign WE, Meyer JL (2005) Investigating hydrologic alteration as a mechanism of fish assemblage shifts in urbanizing streams. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 24(3):656-678.

Roy AH, Rosemond AD, Paul MJ, Leigh DS, Wallace JB (2003) Stream macroinvertebrate response to catchment urbanisation (Georgia, USA). Freshwater Biology 48:329-346.

Roy AH, Shuster WD (2009) Assessing impervious surface connectivity and applications for watershed management. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 45(1):198-209.

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Schiff R, Benoit G (2007) Effects of impervious cover at multiple spatial scales on coastal watershed streams. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 43(3):712-730.

Schoonover JE, Lockaby BG, Helms BS (2006) Impacts of land cover on stream hydrology in the west Georgia piedmont, USA. Journal of Environmental Quality 35(6):2123-2131.

Scoggins M, McClintock NL, Gosselink L, Bryer P (2007) Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons below coal-tar-sealed parking lots and effects on stream benthic macroinvertebrate communities. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 26(4):694-707.

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Shoffner D, Royall D (2008) Hydraulic habitat composition and diversity in rural and urban stream reaches of the North Carolina Piedmont (USA). River Research and Applications 24:1082-1103.

Singer GA, Battin TJ (2007) Anthropogenic subsidies alter stream consumer-resource stoichiometry, biodiversity, and food chains. Ecological Applications 17(2):376-389.

Smith RF, Lamp WO (2008) Comparison of insect communities between adjacent headwater and main-stem streams in urban and rural watersheds. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 27(1):161-175.

Snyder CD, Young JA, Villella R, Lemarie DP (2003) Influences of upland and riparian land use patterns on stream biotic integrity. Landscape Ecology 18:647-664.

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Stepenuck KF, Crunkilton RL, Wang L (2002) Impacts of urban landuse on macroinvertebrate communities in southeastern Wisconsin streams. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 38(4):1041-1051.

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Taulbee WK, Nietch CT, Brown D, Ramakrishnan B, Tompkins MJ (2009) Ecosystem consequences of contrasting flow regimes in an urban effects stream mesocosm study. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 45(4):907-927.

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Thompson A, Wilson T, Norman J, Gemechu AL, Roa-Espinosa A (2008) Modeling the effect of summertime heating on urban runoff temperature. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 44(6):1548-1563.

Thompson AM, Kim K, Vandermuss AJ (2008) Thermal characteristics of stormwater runoff from asphalt and sod surfaces. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 44(5):1325-1336.

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Utz RM, Hilderbrand RH, Boward DM (2009) Identifying regional differences in threshold responses of aquatic invertebrates to land cover gradients. Ecological Indicators 9:556-567.

Vajda AM, Barber LB, Gray JL, Lopez EM, Woodling JD, Norris DO (2008) Reproductive disruption in fish downstream from an estrogenic wastewater effluent. Environmental Science & Technology 42(9):3407-3414.

Walsh CJ (2004) Protection of in-stream biota from urban impacts: minimise catchment imperviousness or improve drainage design?. Marine and Freshwater Research 55(3):317-326.

Walsh CJ (2006) Biological indicators of stream health using macroinvertebrate assemblage composition: A comparison of sensitivity to an urban gradient. Marine and Freshwater Research 57:37-47.

Walsh CJ, Fletcher TD, Ladson AR (2005) Stream restoration in urban catchments through redesigning stormwater systems: looking to the catchment to save the stream. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 24(3):690-705.

Walsh CJ, Roy AH, Feminella JW, Cottingham PD, Groffman PM, Morgan RP II (2005) The urban stream syndrome: Current knowledge and the search for a cure. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 24(3):706-723.

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Walters DM, Leigh DS, Freeman MC, Freeman BJ, Pringle CM (2003) Geomorphology and fish assemblages in a Piedmont river basin, USA. Freshwater Biology 48:1950-1970.

Walters DM, Roy AH, Leigh DS (2009) Environmental indicators of macroinvertebrate and fish assemblage integrity in urbanizing watersheds. Ecological Indicators 9(6):1222-1233.

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Watkinson AJ, Murby EJ, Kolpin DW, Costanzo SD (2009) The occurrence of antibiotics in an urban watershed: From wastewater to drinking water. Science of the Total Environment 407(8):2711-2723.

Wenger SJ, Peterson JT, Freeman MC, Freeman BJ, Homans DD (2008) Stream fish occurrence in response to impervious cover, historic land use, and hydrogeomorphic factors. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 65(7):1250-1264.

Wenger SJ, Roy AH, Jackson CR, Bernhardt ES, Carter TL, Filoso S, Gibson CA, Hession WC, Kaushal SS, Marti E, Meyer JL, Palmer MA, Paul MJ, Purcell AH, Ramirez A, Rosemond AD, Schofield KA, Sudduth EB, Walsh CJ (2009) Twenty-six key research questions in urban stream ecology: an assessment of the state of the science. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 28(4):1080-1098.

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Woodcock TS, Huryn AD (2005) Leaf litter processing and invertebrate assemblages along a pollution gradient in a Maine (USA) headwater stream. Environmental Pollution 134(3):363-375.

Woodling JD, Lopez EM, Maldonado TA, Norris DO, Vajda AM (2006) Intersex and other reproductive disruption of fish in wastewater effluent dominated Colorado streams. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part C 144(1):10-15.

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