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Emissions Standards for Boilers and Process Heaters and Commercial / Industrial Solid Waste Incinerators

Basic Information

Section 129 of the Clean Air Act requires emissions standards for 9 pollutants from incinerators including Commercial/Industrial Solid Waste Incinerators (CISWI). Large and smaller sources are treated in the same way.

  • The nine pollutants include: Cadmium, Carbon Monoxide, Dioxins/Furans, Hydrogen Chloride, Lead, Mercury, Oxides of Nitrogen, Particulate Matter, and Sulfur Dioxide

Section 112 of the Clean Air Act requires emissions standards for boilers and process heaters.

  • Major sources emit 10 tons of any one toxic air pollutant or 25 tons of all toxic air pollutants each year.
    • Emissions standards based on the maximum achievable control technology (MACT) must be set for all emitted toxic air pollutants
  • Area sources are smaller and may be regulated based on less stringent generally available control technology (GACT)
    • Exception for certain pollutants (e.g., mercury, polycyclic organic matter), which must have MACT standards.


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