Technology Transfer Network - OAR Policy and Guidance
PROPOSED EMISSION STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR STATIONARY SPARK IGNITION INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES; AND PROPOSED AIR TOXICS STANDARDS FOR RECIPROCATING INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
HEALTH and ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS
- On May 23, 2006 the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed a rule that would reduce emissions of air pollutants from stationary internal combustion engines. These engines are used at facilities such as power plants and chemical and manufacturing plants to generate electricity, power pumps and compressors. They are also used in emergencies to produce electricity and pump water for flood and fire control. The proposed rule is posted at: http://www3.epa.gov/ttn/oarpg/t3pfpr.html.
- The proposed standards are in two parts. These two sets of regulations are being proposed under one notice of proposed rulemaking because the industries being addressed are practically identical.
- The first part, known as New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), would limit emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) from new stationary spark ignition internal combustion engines.
- A new stationary spark ignition engine is one that is manufactured or ordered after the date this proposal is published in the Federal Register and manufactured after July 1, 2007, for engines greater than or equal to 500 horsepower, and after January 1, 2008, for engines less than 500 HP. Stationary spark ignition engines that commence modification or reconstruction after those dates also are subject to the rule.
- The second part, known as a technology-based the air toxics standard, would limit air toxics emissions from existing, new and reconstructed stationary reciprocating internal combustion engines that are located at area sources of air toxics emissions or that have a site rating of less than or equal to 500 horsepower and are located at major sources of air toxics emissions.
- Owners/operators have several options to demonstrate compliance with the proposed rule. For the most part, owners/operators would purchase an engine certified for stationary use by the manufacturer. The proposal would also require owners/operators to operate and maintain the engine according to the manufacturer’s instructions. If a non-certified engine is purchased, then the owners or operators would need to perform emission testing to demonstrate compliance.
- The schedule for completing this rule is part of a consent decree with Environmental Defense, which requires the EPA Administrator to complete a final rule by December 20, 2007.
- EPA will accept comments on this proposed rule for 90 days following publication of the proposed rule in the Federal Register. HOW TO COMMENT.
- The proposed rule would provide improvements in protecting human health and the environment by reducing pollutant emissions.
- For spark ignition engines, the proposed rule is estimated to reduce NOx emissions by 66,000 tons per year (tpy), CO emissions by about 38,000 tpy, NMHC emissions by about 2,000 tpy, and air toxics emissions by approximately 800 tpy in the year 2015.
- Stationary reciprocating internal combustion engines are already well controlled as a result of other standards. As such, emissions reductions from this standard will be less than for spark ignition engines.
- The total national capital cost for the proposed rule is estimated to be approximately $37 million in the year 2015, with a total national annual cost of $17 million in the year 2015.
- Air toxics emissions are known to cause, or contribute significantly to air pollution, which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health or welfare. The air toxic emitted in the largest quantities from stationary reciprocating internal combustion engines is formaldehyde, which is a probable human carcinogen and can cause irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract, coughing, dry throat and other heart and respiratory problems.
- Pollutants such as NOx may cause both temporary and long-term respiratory symptoms, such as shortness of breath, changes in airway responsiveness, and increased susceptibility to respiratory infection.
- NOx also can form fine particle pollution. Exposure to fine particle pollution is associated with significant adverse health effects including shortness of breath, bronchitis, asthma attacks, heart attacks, and premature death. Particle pollution also contributes to haze, which reduces visibility in cities and in our national parks and wilderness areas.
- NOx reacts with moisture in the atmosphere to form acid rain, which, when deposited, causes acidification of soil and surface waters.
- NOx can react in the air to form ground-level ozone. Ozone can cause coughing, shortness of breath, and aggravate asthma and other chronic lung diseases such as emphysema and bronchitis. Ozone can lead to reduced lung function in both children and adults.
- CO and NMHC are considered harmful to human health and the environment and are linked to various negative health conditions in humans.
- The proposed rule is posted at: http://www3.epa.gov/ttn/oarpg/t3pfpr.html.
- Today's proposed rule and other background information are also available either electronically at http://www.regulations.gov, EPA's electronic public docket and comment system, or in hardcopy at EPA's Air and Radiation Docket and Information Center, Environmental Protection Agency, Room B102, 1301 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC (Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OAR-2005-0030). The Public Reading Room is open from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Monday through Friday, excluding legal holidays. The telephone number for the Public Reading Room is (202) 566-1744, and the telephone number for the Air and Radiation Docket and Information Center is (202) 566-1742.
- HOW TO COMMENT. Comments should be identified by Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OAR-2005-0030 and submitted by one of the following methods:
- online through the Federal eRulemaking Portal (http://www.regulations.gov);
- by e-mail (firstname.lastname@example.org);
- by fax to (202) 566-1741;
- by mail (Air and Radiation Docket and Information Center, Environmental Protection Agency, Mailcode: 6102T, 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20460); or
- by hand-delivery to (Air and Radiation Docket and Information Center, Environmental Protection Agency, Room B102, 1301 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC).