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Particulate Matter (PM)

Control Measure Information

EPA’s national and regional rules to reduce emissions of pollutants that form particle pollution will help state and local governments meet the Agency’s national air quality standards. A number of voluntary programs, such as EPA’s woodstove change-out program, also are helping areas reduce their fine particle pollution. 

In addition to these national programs, much work is underway by state and local air quality agencies, exit EPA and by multi-State regional planning organizations.   

Sources of Information on Control Measures
Inclusion of a site or reference does not constitute EPA endorsement of a particular measure or technology, nor does it constitute EPA endorsement of conclusions or statements made in any of these reference documents or project summaries.

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State/Local Agency Links

California SB 656 programexit EPA As a first step in the implementation of Senate Bill 656 (SB 656, Sher, 2003), the California Air Resources Board approved a list of the most readily available, feasible, and cost-effective control measures that can be employed by air districts to reduce PM10 and PM2.5 (collectively referred to as PM) at its November 18, 2004 Board meeting. The list is based on rules, regulations, and programs existing in California as of January 1, 2004, for stationary, area-wide, and mobile sources.  

CARB "Goods Movement" emissions reduction planexit EPA Because of rapid growth in international trade, CARB concludes that goods movement is now the dominant contributor to transportation emissions in California.   CARB staff developed a proposed plan to identify and initiate specific actions necessary to reduce these emissions.   Categories of transportation emissions addressed in the plan include:  Ships, Commercial Harbor Craft, Cargo Handling Equipment, Trucks, Locomotives, Operational Efficiencies, Land Use Decision-Making, Project and Community Specific Mitigation, and Port Programs to Reduce Emissions.

New Jersey "Reducing Air Pollution Together" Initiativeexit EPA The State of New Jersey is undertaking a collaborative effort for the New Jersey air quality agency, the New Jersey DEP, to work jointly with the public and other interested parties to determine potential air emission reduction strategies for both particulate matter and ozone.  This effort includes six specific workgroups addressing: Diesel Initiatives, Gasoline Cars and Trucks, Homes and Restaurants, Non-Automobile Gasoline Engines, Stationary Combustion Sources, and sources of Volatile Organic Compounds.   

The San Francisco Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD) recently proposed a regulation for commercial cooking which addressed underfire charbroiling as well as chain-driven charbroilers.   While this rule is still under development, information on control technologies being reviewed are discussed in a workshop report (PDF) (17pp, 453k) exit EPA written by BAAQMD staff.

South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD).   SCAQMD’s website describes activities aimed at identifying long-term control strategies.   SCAQMD also is involved in technology advancement efforts. exit EPA

Regional Planning Organization Links

Lake Michigan Air Directors Consortium (LADCO) /Midwest Regional Planning Organization technical reports.  LADCO/Midwest RPO has developed a number of category-specific “white paper” documents, and in addition some general reports on candidate control measures.  Also of general interest is a LADCO-funded study of urban organics (PDF) (78pp, 2.2 MB). exit EPA

Ozone Transport Commission (OTC) "Candidate Control Measures."   exit EPA The OTC Control Strategy Committee has developed worksheets for candidate control measures.

Links to EPA Reports

Residential Wood Combustion Summary of Measures (PDF) (3pp, 182k). EPA has developed a draft summary of several state and local regulations designed to control air emissions from residential wood combustion (RWC).  While this is not an exhaustive list, it can be a useful reference for areas considering additional measures to reduce RWC emissions.

EPA lists of potential control measures for PM2.5 and precursors (PDF) (59pp, 305k).   These informational documents are intended to provide a broad, though not comprehensive, listing of potential emissions reduction measures for direct PM2.5 and precursors.  The purpose is primarily to assist states in identifying and evaluating potential measures as States develop plans for attaining the PM2.5 NAAQS.

Detroit steel mill studies.   In February 2006, EPA completed a study of two steel mills and a coke oven battery.   The objectives of the report were to characterize the the PM2.5 and metals emissions from all of the processes at the plants, to identify technically feasible control measures, and to estimate potential costs of additional control.   The study resulted in a final report (PDF) (93pp, 575k) and a memorandum identifying recommendations for further study (PDF) (4pp, 46k).    

EPA reports on PM2.5 control equipment improvements.    EPA/OAQPS funded two contractor reports, which were an evaluation of potential PM2.5 reductions by improving performance of control devices:  (1)  PM2.5 emissions estimates (PDF) (37pp, 425k), and (2) conclusions and recommendations (PDF) (57pp, 599k).

Information on SO2 controls is described in recently settlement agreements for petroleum refineries and sulfuric acid plants .  

EPA websites contain a number of reports and documents related to improving monitoring for PM controls. EPA's Monitoring Knowledge Base Site provides information about monitoring techniques for air pollution control. The monitoring information is presented by industry type and by control technique.   A separate website includes documents related to EPA requirements for compliance assurance monitoring (CAM) requirements.   EPA has also developed a handbook for bag leak detectors (PDF) (26pp, 315k) for baghouses used for PM control.

EPA websites contain information on PM source testing.  EPA continues to pursue efforts to formalize test methods for condensable particulate matter.   EPA has also developed a “knowledge report (PDF)(86pp, 485k) on PM continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS), and performance specifications for PM CEMS (PDF) (61pp, 103k).  

Electronic Reporting Tool for Source Testing

WebFIRE - for identifying applicable emissions factors

Emissions Factors Uncertainty Assessment

Strategies for Reducing Residential Wood Smoke - This document was written for state, local, and tribal air pollution control officials to have a comprehensive list of strategies to help communities reduce wood smoke from residential heating.

ICAC information on improving PM control device performance exit EPA

The website for the Institute of Clean Air Companies includes citations to a number of papers related to PM control devices and improving their performance


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