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Hazardous Waste Management System: Conditional Exclusion for Carbon Dioxide Streams in Geologic Sequestration Activities Rulemaking

Geologic Sequestration

Geologic Sequestration (GS) is the process of injecting carbon dioxide (CO2), captured from an industrial (e.g., steel and cement production) or energy-related source (e.g., a power plant or natural gas processing facility), into deep subsurface rock formations for long-term storage.

Related Links

Geologic Sequestration - Climate Change

Geologic Sequestration - Water

Department of Energy Carbon Sequestration Program

US Geologic Survey - Carbon Sequestration


Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies allow carbon dioxide (CO2) to be captured at stationary sources - like coal-fired power plants and large industrial operations - and injected underground for long-term storage in a process called geologic sequestration. This rule excludes from EPA’s hazardous waste regulations CO2 streams that are injected for geologic sequestration in wells designated for this purpose under the Safe Drinking Water Act (Class VI Underground Injection Control Wells). The rule is part of EPA’s efforts to provide regulatory clarity to encourage the deployment of CCS technologies in a safe and environmentally protective manner.

This rule is complementary to a Safe Drinking Water Act rule that sets requirements to ensure that wells used for geologic sequestration of CO2 streams are appropriately sited, constructed, tested, monitored, and closed in a manner that ensures protection of Underground Sources of Drinking Water.

Final Rule (PDF) (15 pp, 317K, about PDF)

Additional Resources

Frequent Questions



Federal Register: Proposed Rule - August 8, 2011

Federal Register Notice: Technical Correction - September 9, 2011


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