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Resources: Industrial Materials

Coal Combustion Products | Construction & Demolition Materials | Foundry Sands | Pulp & Paper Byproducts | Scrap Tires | Slags

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Coal Combustion Products

American Coal Ash Association (ACAA) Exit EPA
The ACAA is a not-for profit 501(c)(6) organization that promotes the beneficial use of coal combustion products (CCPs).

Coal Combustion Products Basics (PDF) (14 pp, 963K)
Presentation by David Goss, ACAA, to EPA January 23, 2007, provides information on the production of CCPs and their recycling and beneficial use applications.

Coal Ash Research Center at the University of North Dakota (UND) Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Exit EPA
The Coal Ash Research Center is dedicated to improving the technical and economic aspects of coal ash by-product management. Their website provides educational and technical resources for utilizing coal combustion products, such as state environmental and transportation regulations and the Buyer’s Guide to Coal Ash Containing Products.

Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) Exit EPA
The CBRC is a program that supports and promotes the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts.

American Coal Ash Association’s Compilation of Regulations, Standards, Guidelines, Websites and Other Resources Pertinent to Coal Combustion Products (PDF) (53 pp, 52K)

FGDProducts.org Exit EPA
An online resource providing technical and environmental information about the use of flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGD), a coal combustion product from coal-fired power plants.

US Department of Energy Coal Utilization Byproducts (CUB) Homepages
DOE’s Coal Utilization Byproduct Program website includes information on their CUB utilization and environmental research projects. The Coal Utilization Byproduct Research website contains a list of research and development projects funded by DOE addressing coal, petroleum, and natural gas topics. Both these websites provide information on DOE’s efforts to ensure that as the electric power industry continues to adopt cleaner and more advanced coal technologies, the recycling of coal combustion byproducts in beneficial applications can continue and expand.

Review of Pennsylvania Regulations, Standards, and Practices Related to the Use of Coal Combustion Products. Final Report, August 2005 (PDF) (65 pp, 297K) – scroll down to page 44

Review of Florida Regulations, Standards, and Practices Related to the Use of Coal Combustion Products. Final Report, April 2006 (PDF) (73 pp, 1.4MB)

Review of Texas Regulations, Standards, and Practices Related to the Use of Coal Combustion Products. Final Report, January 2005 (PDF) (60 pp, 979K)

Engineering and Environmental Specifications of State Agencies for Utilization and Disposal of Coal Combustion Products

The EERC developed two reports presenting state transportation and environmental regulations governing the use of coal combustion products. Volume 1 presents a state by state comparison of US Department of Transportation specifications. Volume 2 presents a comparison of state environmental laws and regulations authorizing beneficial reuse of coal combustion by-products.

Electric Power Research Institute Project 49.001 Characterization of Coal Combustion Products (CCP) Exit EPA
This project provides laboratory and field information on CCP characteristics, including their chemical composition and leaching characteristics. Current research focuses on changes to CCP characteristics as a result of new air emission control technologies, laboratory leaching methods and leaching models, and characterization of field leachates. EPRI has developed a large database on CCP characteristics, and additional data will be developed as new control technologies evolve.

US Geological Survey (USGS) Energy Resources Program (ERP)
The Energy Resources Program of the US Geological Survey provides information from impartial, comprehensive research investigations of geologic energy resources, including: petroleum (oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids), coal, gas hydrates, geothermal resources, oil shale, oil sands, uranium, and heavy oil and natural bitumen. Specifically for coal, ERP promotes and supports coal research to improve the understanding of the nation’s coal resources. Their main focus on coal is to support investigations into current issues pertaining to coal production, beneficiation and conversion, and the environmental impacts of the coal combustion process and coal combustion products.

Headwaters Resources is a marketer and supplier of coal combustion products, such as fly ash. The Resource Library section on their website provides general and technical information, including case studies and technical bulletins on utilizing coal combustion products.

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Construction & Demolition (C&D) Materials

EPA’s C&D Materials Homepage
Provides information on C&D recycling, including case studies, tools, and links to additional resources.

RCRA in Focus: Construction, Demolition, and Renovation (PDF) (24 pp, 1.4MB)
Contains frequently asked questions about RCRA, addresses special issues in C&D materials, hazardous waste requirements checklist, and how to reduce the amount of waste you generate. Also provides a summary of other environmental laws affecting the construction industry.

Construction Materials Recycling Association (CMRA) Exit EPA
The CMRA is a 501(c)(3) organization that promotes the recycling of construction and demolition materials.

Construction &Demolition Materials (PDF) (23 pp, 1.8MB)
Presentation by William Turley, CMRA, to EPA January 23, 2007.

California Department of Resources Recycling and Recovery (CalRecycle) Exit EPA
C&D Recycling Tools for Contractor, Local Governments, and Processors.

WasteCap Wisconsin Exit EPA
WasteCap Wisconsin, Inc. is a statewide, nonprofit, industry supported 501(c)(3) organization that provides waste reduction and recycling assistance to businesses. WasteCap assists and encourages companies to effectively drive costs out of their operations through improved solid waste management practices. Contains tools and resources for C&D recycling.

Construction Industry Compliance Assistance Center Exit EPA
Contains a C&D materials State Resource Locator, where contractors can find state and municipal recycling programs.

ShingleRecycling.org Exit EPA
Provides comprehensive information on asphalt shingle recycling, including state experience, markets, environmental regulations, worker health and safety, and links to additional resources.

National Demolition Association (NDA) Exit EPA
The NDA is a non-profit trade organization that promotes recycling and reducing the volume of demolition debris being landfilled. The goals of their Environmental Committee include: monitoring and reporting on American and Canadian recycling, salvage, scrap and de-construction trends; monitoring regulations and laws governing the movement of and recycling of demolition debris waste stream in the US; and researching new or potential markets for the recycled products from demolition debris.

Associated General Contractors of America (AGC) Exit EPA
AGC is a national trade association representing companies in the commercial construction industry for both public and private entities including building, heavy, highway, and municipal projects. The “Environment” section of their website provides information on key environmental issues, including C&D recycling that impact the construction industry.


ConcreteRecycling.org Exit EPA developed by the Construction Materials Recycling Association, is an online resource tool that provides information about concrete recycling.

Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA)-Treated Wood

CCAResearch.org Exit EPA developed and funded by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, the National Science Foundation and the Bill Hinkley Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management, this website provides research information on CCA-treated wood.

Recycled Asphalt Pavement

The Asphalt Recycling and Reclaiming Association (ARRA) Exit EPA is a non-profit organization that promotes asphalt recycling and reclamation. Their website includes presentations and papers on asphalt recycling techniques, and preview chapters for The Basic Asphalt Recycling Manual.

Asphalt Contractor

Asphalt Contractor Exit EPA is an online magazine dedicated to asphalt producers and contractors. The magazine provides hot mix asphalt material producers, highway contractors and public works officials with critical “how-to” information on the process of HMA production, paving, and compaction.

Cold-In Place Recycling Review

A technical review conducted by the Federal Highway Administration to identify best practices and the most advanced uses of Cold-In-Place recycling.

Cold In-Place Recycling: Performance-Based Design

The University of New Hampshire, in conjunction with the University of Rhode Island, conducted research to develop a performance-based mix design (PDF) (194 pp, 7.9MB) for cold-in place recycling for use by State Highway Administrations and local governments. The research was funded by the FHWA.

Pavement Recycling Guidelines for State and Local Governments, FHWA-SA-98-042, December 1997

This resources document (PDF) (301 pp, 123MB) (Note: very large file – may take time to download) includes the following information on recycling asphalt pavements: performance data, legislation/specification limits, selection of pavement for recycling and recycling strategies, economics of recycling, and the structural design of recycled pavements. This resources document funded by the Federal Highway Administration was developed to support the following workshop “Pavement Recycling Guidelines for State and Local Governments” which was held in twelve locations throughout the United States.

Pavement Recycling Executive Summary and Report

A report published by the Federal Highway Administration (PDF) (124 pp, 8.0MB) documents a study conducted between 1992 and 1996 to assess the state-of-the-practice of recycled hot mix construction.

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Foundry Sands

EPA’s Foundry Sand Homepage
Tools, case studies, and other information about the recycling and beneficial use of foundry sand.

AFS First Exit EPA
FIRST provides educational and technical resources for the recycling and beneficial use of foundry byproducts.

Market Development Opportunities for Foundry Sands and Slags (PDF) (23 pp, 1.2MB)
Presentation by Elizabeth Olenbush, FIRST, to EPA January 23, 2007.

American Foundry Society Exit EPA
The leading US based metalcasting society that assists member companies and individuals to effectively manage all production operations, profitably market their products and services, and to equitably manage their employees.

US EPA Sector Strategies Program: Metalcasting

EPA Sector Strategies Program achieves performance improvement and burden reduction in 13 sectors, including metalcasting, by addressing issues and challenges in a collaborative setting. Working collaboratively with stakeholders interested in the metalcasting sector, the Sector Strategies Program developed the “State Toolkit for Developing Beneficial Reuse Programs for Foundry Sand” and “Beneficial Reuse of Foundry Sand: A Review of State Practices and Regulations” documents.

Sector Strategies Metalcasting Homepage provides links and information related to the metalcasting sector including foundry sand reuse.

Beneficial Reuse of Foundry Sand Homepage provides information on the beneficial use of foundry sand and foundry sand documents published by the Sector Strategies Program:

The Foundry Industry…Recycling Yesterday, Today & Tomorrow

An American Foundry Society Brochure (PDF) (2 pp, 1.7MB) Exit EPA on the industry’s efforts to recycle at all phases of the metalcasting process.

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Pulp and Paper Byproducts

National Council for Air and Stream Improvement Inc. (NCASI) Exit EPA
NCASI is an independent, non-profit research institute that focuses on environmental topics of interest to the forest products industry.

Management of Byproduct Solids Generated in the Pulp and Paper Industry (PDF) (18 pp, 794K)
Presentation by William Thacker, NCASI, to EPA January 23, 2007.

Compilation of Alternative Landfill Cover Experience Using Wastewater Treatment Plant Residuals: NCASI Technical Bulletin No. 900, May 2005 (69 pp, 8.6MB) Exit EPA
A report containing information on the use of paper industry wastewater treatment residuals as hydraulic barrier material in landfill covers. This was developed by the NCASI Northern Regional Center and partially funded by a US EPA Region 5 Beneficial Use Demonstration grant.

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Scrap Tires

EPA’s Scrap Tire Recycling Homepage
Tools, information and case studies.

Rubber Manufacturers Association (RMA) Exit EPA
RMA is the national trade association for the elastomer products industry. Its members include companies that manufacture various elastomer products, including tires, hoses, belts, seals, molded and extruded goods, and other finished elastomer products.

Beneficial Use of Tire Shreds in Civil Engineering Applications (PDF) (24 pp, 1.2MB)
Presentation by Mike Blumenthal, RMA, to EPA, January 23, 2007.

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National Slag Association (NSA) Exit EPA
The NSA is a non-profit organization that promotes the beneficial use of blast furnace and steel furnace slags. Their website contains information on educational and technical resources for recycling slags.

Iron and Steel Slag: The Ultimate Renewable Resource (PDF) (17 pp, 763K)
Presentation by Terry Wagaman, NSA, to EPA, January 23, 2007.

Slag Cement Association (SCA) Exit EPA
The SCA is an organization that promotes the recycling of slag cement also known as ground granulated blast furnace slag in cement and concrete applications. Their website provides information on education and technical resources, including specifications, products and applications, and highlights of innovative projects that have used slag cement.

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